Various pollutants are there which are the dominant and leading cause in human diseases and these pollutants include Particulate Matter which are small variable particles that permeates into respiratory system of human through inhalation and causes diseases like respiratory disease, dis function of central nervous system and conceptive system, cancer and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, dioxin, poly cyclic hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxides are examined as the air pollutants which are more harmful for the humans and carbon mono oxides can aggravate poisoning when they are permeated at high level. The strong metals like lead is consumed in to the human body it can cause poisonous intoxication that depends upon the susceptibility.
There are many issues of air quality on human health. The affected and delicated people could be affected in low days of air pollution. Liability to the air pollutants is intently associated to asthma, morbidity, cough, breath shortening and wheezing.
But longstanding impacts that are associated with the air quality are cardiovascular disease and mortality, insufficiency and chronic asthma. And according to the past study, diabetes is induced by susceptibility of permanent air pollution. Furthermore, there are many different health effects of air pollution in early life of a human which includes cardiovascular, respiratory and mental disorders that leads to the chronic disease and infant extinction in the age of adult.
Outwardly considering the issues, a great bulk of the pollutants and harmful wastes are dumped into the earth’s environment and these aforesaid responses vigorously deteriorate the health of earth’s environs and this deterioration climatically influence the health of humans. Moreover, the chemical agents have also compelling effects on the health of humans. The examples of chemical agents are pesticides, endocrine and dioxin. Heavy metals like lead, cadmium and mercury are generally composed as outgrowth of manufacturing and mining processes. All of these metals become higher concentrated in the nature with expanding level of food chain. For instance, in polluted water, mercury can acquire in swordfish to the levels that are toxic for human health. When these heavy toxic metals are penetrated into the human body, they pile up in the tissues and can cause severe sickness or may be death. Recent studies reveal that the people having high average levels of lead in their bones, have elevated risks of promoting attention loss disorder and intrusive and disruptive behaviour. Brain cells can be also damage by lead and muscular functioning may also affect.
Air pollutants like sulphur may bring about a large amount of acid in stream and lake and this acid can pollute and spoil the soil and trees. Atmosphere having Nitrogen can hurt fishes and more marine lives when nitrogen is dropped on the water surface. Ozone can spoil tree leaves and adversely impacts the impressive sight in cherished in natural areas.Heavy metal compounds like mercury which are exhaled in the air from fuel ignition and are ditched o the lands and water, aggregates in the animals, plants and a bit of it is inhaled by people. Dioxin can impact on the liver and can damage the nervous system, immune system and reproductive functions. Lead may cause affect on brain and kidney of children and can also hurt their IQ system. Allergens that are produced from weed, grass and tree are also lugged in the air that can be insecure and risky for human health.
A practical definition of dispersion is used by Gaussian Plume model. The Gaussian model consider that the climatic instability is homogeneous and static. Certainly, both conditions are not totally satisfied. Though, Gaussian model is auspiciously used for the rural compositions. The model is also used test it in contrary to the tracer experiments in urban circumferential. In Gaussian model, the pollution’s concentration that is exhaled from the source is conducted as the extensive exterior from the plume’s center line. The plume is dispersed in horizontal direction as well as vertical direction. In the Gaussian model, there are two major steps to determine the concentration of pollutant at ground level; First is the height in which plume is risen at the inclined downwind distance from the source of plume is estimated. The estimated rise of plume is added in the plume’s source point height to have the effective stack height. The second step is to predict the concentration of ground level pollutant below the plume at a given downwind distance by applying Gaussian dispersion equation. ?h i.e plume rise plays a crucial aspect in calculating concentrations of ground level for real sources. There is the coefficients of dispersion σ, that represents the spread of plume. Dispersion coefficient’s value is calculated by the magnitude of turbulence in the air. The large values of σ is noted during the unstable atmosphere and the small values of σ is noted during the stable atmosphere. The dispersion coefficient’s measurements are made under the diversified conditions of atmosphere. The dispersion coefficient’s measurement that are used by all models is published by Turner, that are called Pasquill Gifford coefficients.
The Gaussian Plume model’s environmental depiction is depend on the conventional distinct stability categories that are stability classes of Pasquill Turner. The atmosphere is described by six stability classes, labeled from A to F.
D = neutral
Pasquill Gifford Formula;
C (x,y,z) = concentration of pollutant at location (x,y,z),unit(kg m 3)
Q = flow rate of release, unit (kg per second).
σy and σz = dispersion parameters in the y and z directions
u = wind velocity in x direction, unit (m/s)
H = total height of release, unit(in meters)
Using Pasquill Gifford formula to calculate concentration of pollutant at z=0 and z=15
Pasquill Gifford formula;
Q= 0.45 Kg/s
σy = 0.11x(1+0.0004)^ 0.5 = 0.109
σz = 0.08x(1+0.00015)^ 0.5 = 0.079
u = 1 m/s
H = 20m
C(x,y,z)=(0.45/2x3.14x0.109x0.0079)x( (50)^2/2x(0.109)^2)x((( (0 20)^2/2x(0.079)^2)+( (15+20)^2/2x(0.079)^2))
= 8.333 x 108695.652 x ( 33333.333 102083.333)
= 8.333 x 108695.652 x 135416.666)
= 122655117x10^3 Kg m 3
As factory is required to meet the the legal limits given by government on environmental disclosure of chemicals being released. The concentration of pollution must be 0.0002 Kg m 3 prescribed by the government but according to your given values of prevailing wind, stack height and rate of chemical release, the pollutant concentration calculated is greater than the legal limit prescribed by the government. As a consultant, I would prefer you to minimize your chemical flow rate to meet the legal limit.
The concentration of air pollutant is inversely proportional to the wind speed. According to the weather conditions if the wind speed is high the air pollutants will be more diluted and if the wind is low the air pollutants will be less diluted.
Advise on Air Quality Control
As manufacturing industries and constructon industries are the biggest polluters in increasing air contamination. These manufacturing industries should keep the air healthy and clean. As a consultant I would advise you some effective ways to reduce and avoid air pollution exhaled from the factory.
Shift to sources that provide clean energy. Instead of using natural gas and coal use geothermal and biomass systems that also creates air pollution but at lower level than natural gas and coal.
use catalytic oxidizers that uses intensive temperature to turn down air pollutants in the basic compounds which in result produce harmless pollutant
Use rotary concentrators that rotates at a very high speed to isolate air pollutants into a hydrophobic media in which oxidizers destroy the pollutants. For manufacturing goods, take up materials that are non toxic.
Human health has many different issues of air quality. Different pollutants are there which are the leading cause in human diseases. Moreover, the pollutants are examined as the air pollutants which are harmful for the humans and can aggravate poisoning when they are penetrated at high level. Outwardly considering the issues, a bulk of the pollutants and harmful wastes are dumped into the earth’s environment and they vigorously deteriorate the health of earth’s environs and also influence the human health. Moreover, the chemical agents have also compelling effects on the health of humans.
The Gaussian model consider that the climatic instability is static. In Gaussian model, the pollution’s concentration that is exhaled from the source is conducted as the extensive exterior from the plume’s center line. The Gaussian Plume model’s environmental depiction is depended on the conventional distinct stability categories that are stability classes of Pasquill Turner
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