Mental Health Nursing

Introduction

This essay intends to discuss the Great Depression as it was inevitable, and nothing could have been done to subside it, let alone stop it. In this essay, coherent arguments will also expand my thoughts regarding the great Depression. The essay will also have facts and figures regarding the Great Depression. In their book, Bindas (2017) stated that the Great Depression was the worst and most impactful downturn of the economy ever in the history of the industrialised world that started in 1929 till 1939. The huge Depression started due to the sudden crashing of the Stock market in October of 1929, which created panic in Wall Street, and millions of investors were negatively impacted and wiped out from there. According to the claims of Temin (2016), those were the most testing times for the world economy as there seemed to be no way out from that situation. In his research, Hui (2015) presented that William Manchester has done a great work regarding the Great Depression in his book "The Glory and the Dream: A Narrative History of America, 1032-1972". He explained that the world economic crisis was called the Great Depression because "depression" sounded less alarming. However, the economic downturns in the past were known as "panic", which were alarming and created more panic than necessary. Thus, this essay will critically analyse the Great Depression and its impacts on the world's economy. The information in this essay will be backed up by credible resources and arguments from different researchers and authors.

Discussion

According to the study of Gopinath (2020), the Great Depression was considered as widespread and longest-lasting economic Depression of the 20th century. It started with the US stock market crash of 1929 and resulted in steep failure in results, soaring unemployment, and severe deflation. In December 1931, after five years of devastating deflation, the economy reached its lowest point, and the average unemployment rate rose to nearly 25%. Albers and Uebele (2015) argued that the Great Depression ended at different times in different countries, among them Germany (1933), Japan (1938), Britain (1940), US (1941). Few Americans remember the Great Depression. During the time known as the Roaring Twenties, a period of economic growth, the US economy became increasingly unstable. In their study, Robbins and Weidenbaum (2017) stated that over speculation caused the stock market to crash, leaving banks and other businesses unable to meet their commitments. However, Shiroyama (2020) stated that, in response, business owners cut costs, laid off, and wages were cut. Banks failed in November 1929, and less than a year later, in February 1930, the US economy had sunk into a deep depression that would last over a decade. The Great Depression began with over speculations in the stock market, real estate, and banking. Prices for goods and services started to fall, and an end to many new creations was expected. However, President Hoover tried to maintain the dollar's value by limiting the money supply. This did have the desired effect of stopping inflation and led to deflation as per the claims of (Temin 2016).

According to Bernstein's study (2020), the Great Depression was a nationwide economic depression in the United States during the 1930s. It began in different nations at different dates, but for the most part, it began in 1929 and lasted into the 1930s in the majority of countries. The protracted period was responsible for the twentieth century's deepest and most widespread Depression. Benmelech et al. (2019) presented that four highlighting factors that caused the Great Depression in their research. The first cause was the unequal distribution of wealth among people as the high ratios were given to the elite class, and middle class people were suffering throughout the 1920s. This was caused by speculation in stocks and real estate and made worse by bank failures. Cristiano et al. (2018) presented that the second cause of the Great Depression was deflation resulting from financial panics throughout the decade. The third cause was a collapse in world trade. The fourth cause was a large drop in the value of foreign currencies, which put pressure on the US dollar (the Bretton Woods System) and exacerbated weaknesses in the economy (Albers 2018).

In contrast, (Ivanova 2017) states that one more reason for the Great Depression was overproduction. The US had been in a recession for almost four years when the Depression began. The Government started cutting taxes and encouraging people to buy margins to boost economic activity. As a result, people started buying more than they could afford, and companies produced more than they could sell, leading to overproduction (Feigenbaum 2015). The cause was a banking crisis in late 1929, which sent global investors rushing to convert their currency into gold. This caused a credit crunch as banks called in loans and refused to give out credit due to their uncertainty over whether they would be paid back, resulting in a collapse of asset prices and widespread panic by investors who tried to get rid of their risky stocks at any cost as per the claims of (Shiroyama 2020).

Cortes et al. (2021) presented that the Great Depression started with the Stock Market; shares were getting sold off at an extremely low price because no one was buying, and people were selling their shares quickly. This caused the market to crash and stocks to become almost impossible to sell, causing major banks to go bankrupt. With all these banks going out of business, many people lost their money and were left with nothing. People during the Great Depression had very little money. Many lost their jobs, and some even were homeless. Farmers had problems selling their crops because they didn't have money to buy supplies to grow them. All of these hardships caused the Great Depression. In his research, Temin (2016) argued that People got by as best they could, facing hard work and little money. No American was safe from the effects of The Great Depression, as per the claims of (Komlos and Carson 2017).

In contrast, Cortes et al. (2021) explain that it is important to remember that Americans weren't truly struggling as much as they were hurting. Families had to share meals, which made them smaller and cheaper. Families also cut food costs by not eating meat (Babbitt 2018). People used less of everything that costs money, including electricity, gas and coal. The Great Depression was a difficult time for the economy and the entire world as everyone was suffering. It was a time of poverty and despair caused by many different events that led to the downturn of the economy. When the stock market fell and jobs were scarce (Anderson et al., 2017). Times were very hard for many American citizens. Interesting Facts About the Great Depression are as follow: The financial exchange lost practically 90% of its worth somewhere in the range of 1929 and 1933. Around 11,000 banks fizzled during the Great Depression, leaving numerous without investment funds.

In comparison, Robbins and Weidenbaum (2017) claim that In 1929, joblessness was around 3%. In 1933, it was 25%, with 1 out of 4 individuals unemployed. Bank closures resulted in more than $1 billion in bank outlets. Around 100 new government jobs and 40 new organisations were created due to the New Deal. During the Great Depression, the average family's earnings dropped by 40%. The most visibly dreadful extended periods of the Great Depression, according to Elder (2018), were 1932 and 1933. Around 300,000 businesses closed their doors. Many families were evicted from their houses because they couldn't pay their mortgages. Many people moved out from the Dust Bowl region in the Midwest, and around 200,000 people moved to California. During his "First Hundred Days" presidency, President Roosevelt pushed through 15 key laws (Ivanova 2017).

According to the claims of (Petts et al., 2021) and the studies of many philosophers, the impact of the Great Depression was by far the worst economic downturn in the history of the Western industrialised world, and it also impacted the global economy. Focus on international political and economic relations, and Government attempts to alleviate the effects of the Great Depression in the United States, United States government policies that contributed to the Depression and ways in which economic conditions changed for ordinary people. According to Schaller et al. (2020), The Great Depression was the most catastrophic economic event in history. It affected every sphere of life and has been recognised as the watershed moment in modern Western history. Cortes et al. (2021) presented in their research that the Great Depression struck the whole world economy between 1929 and 1939, beginning in the United States. This made many people lose their jobs and even more lose their savings. Most banks, factories and stores closed down. Families all over the world had to live without food and warm clothing. The economic collapse of the 1930s was the biggest slowdown in the history of the world economy. Benmelech et al. (2019) presented in their research that what was remarkable about this Depression was that its effects were felt globally, across national borders and continents. This means we can not just look at what happened in America but also take a global perspective on how this event affected other world regions. Throughout this period, there were a variety of economic impacts that affected the way Americans spent money and the way they thought about how to make more. In addition, people's opinions on how the Government should handle situations with unemployment were changed. Albers and Uebele (2015) presented that From October 1929 to March 1933, the United States economy had shrunken to half of what it had been worth in 1929. The stock market crash of October 1929 is a significant part of this event, as it began a decline in the economy that lasted more than several years. The crash did not cause the Depression; several factors led to the crisis, culminating in this sudden market collapse. Recovery from the Depression took some time, and a new, stronger economic recovery was necessary for the United States to come out of its low point (Ivanova 2017).

Gopinath (2020) presented that the Great Depression was inevitable given the Government's freshness with the issue of the securities exchanges. Residents could be put into organisations by purchasing shares. Numerous families lost their homes given the Great discouragement. Simply in the time of 1932, around 273,000 individuals were ousted from their homes. Most teenagers struggle with the problem for a few years until they find themselves (Komlos and Carson 2017). Fortunately, a solution does not include joining the military, getting married, and settling down. There is a solution that is not time consuming or costly, but it takes willpower. According to Schaller et al. (2020), No one knows what happened in the complex financial world in 1929 that led to the Great Depression. However, experts are convinced that it was a combination of several events. The first was the enormous stock market boom of the 1920s which led to overly bullish expectations by investors. When companies' profits fell short of this unrealistic expectation, investors quickly pulled their money out of the market. According to Hui (2015), this caused prices to fall dramatically and resulted in many stockholders losing much of their investments. At this point, there was still no tangible sign that Depression was on the horizon; however, there were other factors present at this time that created a deep recession as early as late 1929 that set the stage for what is now known as "Black Tuesday" on October 29, 1929 (Verney 2020).

Those with almost no obligation had the option to brave the storm. Emerging from the Great Depression, many individuals, for a long time, were deliberate about staying away from obligation. Bindas (2017) presented that Another down to earth illustration we can gain from the Great Depression that might be applied to the current financial emergency is the significance of having a spending plan. The US responded to the Great Depression in three ways: government action, increased tax revenue and an increased emphasis on debt repayment. Elder (2018) states that various large lessons arose from the Great Depression, regardless of whether the resulting ages have diligently overlooked them. Perhaps the greatest way we ought to never pass on the monetary area to its own gadgets. Inadequately directed banks helped trigger the 1929 stock market crash by loaning theorists. At whatever point it finished, the Great Depression changed America for eternity. According to Cortes et al. (2021), the Development of New Deal programs implied the public authority interceded significantly more in individuals' regular routines, giving them occupations and help and new types of protection. Work strikes and associations are considered better approaches for thinking.

In light of Anderson et al. (2017) elucidation, the Great Depression began in 1929 and lasted until 1939. It was the longest and worst Depression ever experienced by the Western world. Banks, factories, and stores closed their doors, and part of the population became unemployed. Bernstein (2020) explains that the Great Depression ended with World War 2. Jobs were needed so more men could join the military.

In comparison, Albers (2018) states that the war industries helped lift us out of the Great Depression, but we still had hard times after that period. They were preparing the economy for universal conflict at long last relieved the downturn. According to the study of Petts et al. (2021), there were strict monetary policies aimed at restraining stock market rumours in the United States, and because of them, the start of a decline in the United States happened after the winter of 1929 at a large pace. The 1920s were not unusual but a profitable decade because in this era, the prices of wholesale goods stayed incompletely constant throughout the decade. Only slight recessions were noticed that occurred between 1924 and 1927. However, during these times, the stock markets were the places that were evident for surplus. With the decrease in 1921 to the ascent in 1929, stock qualities had expanded by more than fourfold. The Federal Reserve supported loan costs in 1928 and 1929 with expectations of checking the quick ascent in stock qualities (Albers 2018). Komlos and Carson (2017) introduced that these higher advance rates brought down touchy revenue spending in development and car buying, affecting efficiency. As indicated by certain analysts, a house development blast during the 1920s brought about an abundance of lodging supply and a sharp decrease in development in 1928 and 1929 (Babbit 2018).

An issue in banks happens when large numbers of the investors begin having trust issues on the bank's security and demo that the stores are given to them in real money (Benmelech et al., 2019). Banks should sell advances to raise the required money since they commonly keep small stores as money saves. The past dissolvable banks can fall because of this quick selling process. After the fall period of 1930, the spring of 1931, the fall of 1931, and the fall of 1932, the United States saw far and wide financial frenzies (Bindas 2017)

As per the cases of Hausman et al. (2019), in the spring of 1933, the United States started to recuperate. During the 1930s, yield flooded at high speed: from 1933 and 1937, genuine GDP expanded at a pace of 9% each year by and large. In any case, the yield had fallen such a long way in the mid-1930s that it remained well beneath its since quite a while ago run pattern level for the remainder of the decade. The United States saw one more extreme decline in 1937–38; however, from mid-1938, the American economy bounced back considerably quicker than during the 1930s. In 1942, the United States' result, at last, recuperated to its drawn-out pattern level (Hui 2015). Hence, as per Verney (2020), the rest of the world's recovery was lopsided. The British economy recuperated following, leaving the highest quality level in September 1931. However, it would not completely recuperate until 1932. In late 1931 and early 1932, the economy of several Latin American countries began to improve. In the fall of 1932, both Germany and Japan began to recover. In 1933, Canada and many smaller European countries recovered simultaneously as the United States. France, which suffered a severe slump later than the rest of the world, did not fully recover until 1938 (Cristiano et al., 2018).

Conclusion

It is to conclude that the Great Depression was a dark time for the world economy, and there was nothing that anyone could do to stop it or lower its impact. The economic downturns in the past were known as "panic", which were alarming and created more panic than necessary. Thus, this essay will critically analyse the Great Depression and its impacts on the world's economy. The information in this essay will be backed up by credible resources and arguments from different researchers and authors. During the Great Depression, many investors were wiped out from Wall Street, and panic was spread throughout the business and economic world, let alone at Wall Street. During the time known as the Roar Twenties, the US economy turned out to be progressively temperamental during the financial turn of events. The Great Depression was an extreme overall financial downturn, for the most part during the 1930s, beginning in the USA and the timings of the Great Depression was distinctive in all nations. The most observably awful extensive stretches of the Great Depression were 1932 and 1933. Around 300,000 associations left the business. Many families couldn't pay their home loans and were ousted from their homes. The cause was a banking crisis in late 1929, which sent global investors rushing to convert their currency into gold. The Great Depression started with the Stock Market; shares were getting sold off at an extremely low price because no one was buying, and people were selling their shares quickly. The Great Depression was the most catastrophic economic event in history. It affected every sphere of life and has been recognised as the watershed moment in modern Western history.

References

Albers, T. and Uebele, M., 2015. The global impact of the great Depression.

Albers, T.N.H., 2018. The intro and global impact of the Great Depression: Evidence from a new macroeconomic dataset. Explorations in Economic History, 70, pp.150-163.

Anderson, R.G., Bordo, M. and Duca, J.V., 2017. Money and velocity during financial crises: From the great Depression to the great recession. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 81, pp.32-49.

Babbitt, K.R., 2018. 7. Legitimising Nutrition Education: The Impact of The Great Depression. In Rethinking Home Economics (pp. 145-162). Cornell University Press.

Benmelech, E., Frydman, C. and Papanikolaou, D., 2019. Financial frictions and employment during the great Depression. Journal of Financial Economics, 133(3), pp.541-563.

Bernstein, M.A., 2020. 2 Why the Great Depression Was Great: Toward a New Understanding of the Interwar Economic Crisis in the United States. In The Rise and Fall of the New Deal Order, 1930-1980 (pp. 32-54). Princeton University Press.

Bindas, K.J., 2017. Modernity and the Great Depression: The Transformation of American Society, 1930-1941. University Press of Kansas.

Cortes, G.S., Taylor, B. and Weidenmier, M.D., 2021. Financial factors and the propagation of the Great Depression. Journal of Financial Economics.

Crafts, N. and Fearon, P., 2010. Lessons from the 1930s great Depression. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 26(3), pp.285-317.

Cristiano, C., Marcuzzo, M.C. and Sanfilippo, E., 2018. Taming the great Depression: Keynes's personal investments in the US stock market, 1931–1939. Economia Politica, 35(1), pp.13-40.

Elder, G.H., 2018. Children of the Great Depression: Social change in life experience. Routledge.

Gopinath, G., 2020. The great lockdown: Worst economic downturn since the great Depression. IMF blog, 14, p.2020.

Hausman, J.K., Rhode, P.W. and Wieland, J.F., 2019. Recovery from the great Depression: The farm channel in spring 1933. American Economic Review, 109(2), pp.427-72.

Hui, S.U., 2015. A Research on the Application of the Four-character Structure in the Chinese Translation of The Glory and the Dream from the Perspective of "Faithfulness, Expressiveness, Elegance". Overseas English, 2015, p.23.

Ivanova, MN, 2017. Profit growth in boom and bust: the Great Recession and the Great Depression in comparative perspective. Industrial and Corporate Change, 26(1), pp.1-20.

Komlos, J. and Carson, S., 2017. The BMI values of the lower classes likely declined during the Great Depression. Economics & Human Biology, 26, pp.137-143.

Petts, D., O'Donnell, R. and Armstrong, K., 2021. Material Responses to the Great Depression in Northeast England. International Journal of Historical Archaeology, pp.1-29.

Rauchway, E., 2008. The Great Depression and the New Deal: A very short introduction. Oxford University Press.

Robbins, L. and Weidenbaum, M., 2017. The great Depression. Routledge.

Schaller, J., Fishback, P. and Marquardt, K., 2020, May. Local Economic Conditions and Fertility from the Great Depression through the Great Recession. In AEA Papers and Proceedings (Vol. 110, pp. 236-40).

Shiroyama, T., 2020. China during the great Depression: Market, state, and the world economy, 1929–1937. Brill.

Temin, P., 2016. Great Depression. In Banking Crises (pp. 144-153). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Verney, K., 2020. The Great Depression and the Second World War, 1930–1945. In The Debate on Black Civil Rights in America. Manchester University Press.

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