Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Introduction

Solar and wind energy are considered as two most renewable sources of energy that have been thought to design and enhance based on power generators. When a disaster or something like war happens, lots of public property or residential establishments get destroyed. The situations like a tornado or an earthquake of a decent magnitude, or any other sort of natural disasters always devastate all the essential things about daily lives across a wider aspect like clean water supply, electricity or medical services. Nobody has forgot the disaster effects that the world has witness after the World War I and World War II.  After these disasters  happens, the most essential thing that gets affected is the city wide power grid. Electricity is the significant thing which is used in all emergency shelters or hospitals, and it is vital for communication as well as to provide relief for the people severely affected in the disaster. For the redevelopment in the effected zone one of the essential necessarily that is being required is electricity that plays an important role.

 Besides there are many undeveloped villages around the world. These villages don’t get enough power supply to run their basic needs for a whole day. They have frequent power cuts and sometimes it lasts for days. Basically, the villages that are undeveloped doesn’t require too much power. But the problem lies elsewhere. With overwhelming demand, the aggregate demand curve is continuously falling, with limited supply. The minimum requirements for these villages to run smoothly are not available, and this situation creates a big problem for rural and local development.  So, to resolve this issue to all the possible extent, we are introducing power generators which work and Renewable Energy resources. In this study the renewable energy sources we are going to use is Solar and Wind. This study titled as ‘Design and Development of Solar and Wind energy Based portable power generators’ will concentrate on designing two separate modular power generators which are easily portable and highly efficient. This project will be analysed in terms of power generation and transportability.

1.2 Background of the Research

The intensified demand for solar and wind energy has been generated due to the substantial growth of population, as well as urbanization. The recent technological enhancements have expedited the excellent implementation of the affluence of both solar and wind energy. It is valuable to be referred that manipulating solar and wind energy is for manufacturing dependable electrical power and it is very reasonable. This chapter is a necessary part of this particular project because it elaborates on the reason for designing and developing solar and winds energy based power generators (Yang et al. 2022).

This study requires the understanding of the situation of an emergency. The main concern in these affected zones is getting food and clean water, medicines, the electrical supply to use various devices of communication or emergency equipment to help the situation, so that large number of people are served within in a less frame of time. So, the main aspect to determine in a situation like this is to work on a power generator that does not need fossil fuels as a source to create electricity (Akta? and K?rçiçek, 2020). The greatest potential for further developing the expression and reliability of wind energy and solar energy by reducing energy and cost consumption lies in improving material design and assembly processes. The design of the generator should be able to give the generator the ability to use the solar energy or the wind energy to produce the enough amount of electricity to provide power to various appliances in case of an emergency.  The geological aspect is another significant form factor toward the availability of the right amount of solar radiation or for a climatic situation where the speed of the wind is a significant aspect which can speed the turbine enough to produce electricity.

As there is also the option of the petrol – diesel leaded generator is also being available, but the power supply is being limited as it is depended on the supply of the petrol – diesel. Using the fuel based generators will limit the supply and c will be very costly. So, to solve the problem of the availability and to make it financially friendly renewable sources are being used.

The overall process of developing the essentials for a generator that can be powered with solar radiation requires as an extension equipment like cells that are photoelectric in nature or use the solar radiation to channel the energy and convert it into electric energy that can be used to power other electrical devices (Bahri and Amor, 2019). The solar panels used in this particular project are foldable which eases the transportability by acquiring less space. Overall generator needs to be modular so it can be modified as per the amount of electrical output requirement in the field of emergency. The battery capacity and the amounts of the solar panel extensions needed depends on the electrical output required and can be estimated by using the Matlab simulation.

Similarly, In wind turbine power generators the number of turbines required will be estimated in MATlab and are carried separately with the power regulation base. The overall requirement of the development and the design is almost same, the only difference is the wind powered generators have the wind turbines that can use the power of wind and change it to the connected generator that can use the kinetic energy from the wind to produce the electricity (Burmeyster, et al., 2020). The module of this generator and the propeller extension needs to be separated into parts as well so it can be transported with the entire generator setup. Both types of generators and the overall produced electrical output that can be used in the situation where the essential services or some medical equipment or communication equipment needs to be powered all day. This significance of the research topic needs to be acknowledged by the government, local authorities, development and rescue force or team that are being engage in the rescue and the redevelopment of the people from the affected area, So they can use this information to their own assessment

General Solar Energy Conversion systems

Photovoltaic power generators have become perhaps the most encouraging sustainable age innovation on account of their alluring attributes like overflow of solar and clean energy. A solar generator intends to supply usable solar power through photovoltaics. It comprises of a arrangements of a few parts, including solar boards to convert and change over sunlight into electricity, a solar inverter to change over the result from direct to alternating power, as well as mounting, cabling, and other electrical assistants to set up a functioning framework. It might likewise utilize a solar maximum power point tracking system to work on the generators general execution and incorporate a coordinated battery arrangement, as costs for batteries are relied upon to efficiency and are declining constantly. Generally, a solar array just incorporates the outfit of solar boards, the apparent piece of the PV generators, and does exclude the wide range of various equipment, regularly summed up as Balance of system (BOS) or Power Regulating System. Quick PV innovation improvement and declining establishment costs are additionally animating the expanding arrangement of PV in power generators. In any case, because of the idea of solar energy and PV boards, immediate power result of a PV Generators relies generally upon its working climate, like solar irradiance and encompassing temperature, bringing about steady changes in the result power. Consequently, to keep a dependable result power, battery backups are typically coordinated with generators to address the inconsistency issue.

 General Wind Energy Conversion System

In the present days, encouraging the green ecosystems, generally speaking, as well as, putting less pressure on the ecosystem power explicitly, all the while, adding to a gradual new development is seen as a basic interest of both current and standard analysts. The utilization of supportable power was limited by lacking data that consists of capable assembling of resources and taking care of clean energy. Likewise, there is a critical need of guidance for viable improvement with a transdisciplinary vision consisting of specific, financial, social and environmental perspectives that looks after their interlinkages. Nowadays, the essential resources are considered as working energies. Wind energy sums up to intensify the assembled energy during a specific stretch of time. These are seen as the most Maximum PowerPoint following techniques. In a particular concern of thought, to achieve the working at a most high PowerPoint, the tip speed extent ought to be kept at an ideal constrained of worth, regardless of the wind impacts. A huge occupation in the wind energy industry, the lead is played by the used control of plans and strategies. The very controlled elements are tended to by the power, speed and energy. To properly analyse wind energy change structures (wind turbines), there are generally used and continuous sets of emulators, for cost effective methods. Testing a wind turbine in an airstream can be an exorbitant game plan. Thus, an emulator can copy the lead of a certified wind turbine in different working frameworks. The static and dynamic characteristics of a wind turbine ought to be adequately similar to the ones of the certifiable breeze turbine.

The guideline advantage of an emulator system is that the structure can be successfully programmed even after reconfiguration. The testing of the electrical generator in the same manner can be performed by using a breeze turbine emulator, in different frameworks, for instance, a structure of free working receptors. Power devices as well as instructive arrangement are huge pieces of a high level power planning preparation system. It covers various areas that are harmless to the ecosystem power, variable speed drives, electric vehicles, mechanical innovation, associating energy sources with the structure, versatile transmission lines, and various applications. Regularly the speculative thoughts are presented through a discussion based course. In any case the strategy for outfitting engineers through steady associations along with energy change structures shifts to the beginning. This happens with one energy resource analysis or assessment foundation then onto the following, and finally a wide area of preliminary exploration community courses of action is represented in the consistent composition

RESEARCH RATIONALE

The basis of the research work is about the facts that the emergency situations like a place after a natural disaster have destroyed most of the public properties and the authorities having complexity to deal with the power outrage and other situations to provide food and medicines to the persons in the area that is devastated (Gandzha and Kotov, 2019). The purpose of the generator is to use the natural resources like the light coming from the sun or the airflow around the place. The conceptual working process of the generator to use these types of renewable energy sources to produce the optimum amount of energy to power the emergency utilities and other sorts of things.

The design and the other procedures related to the development of the product and the use of the proper software to come up with an innovative design is the key concern for the researchers. The overall aspects about the working process and the portability of the generator are a key concern to be determined by the government, local authorities, development and rescue force or team that are being engage in the rescue and the redevelopment of the people from the affected area (Norouzi and Fani, 2021). The generator needs to be transported into the places to provide power to the places having a blackout.

The logical basis of the development and the design related to the software work and the selection of the right materials and equipment to utilise the power coming from the renewable energy source and produce optimum amount of energy and store it properly in a battery or using it later (Park and Kim, 2019). The rationale of the research and the other aspects about the working process and the process related to the development of the generator and the using purpose of the generator is elaborated and the government, local authorities, development and rescue force or team that are being engage in the rescue and the redevelopment of the people from the affected area should get a better insight about the chosen reason for this sort of work in the research paper.

The further elaboration about the making of generators which is using the universal energy sources like the solar radiation and the wind energy to make Clean Energy Optimisation. This technology is becoming a worldwide concerning factor and all the environment list and the innovative associate is becoming a trend in recent times. The sustainability and the portability of the machine is the key aspect and the most beneficial factor so it can be used within the remote area where a disaster happens and people need power and electricity to do certain things like heating up the room for providing electricity to the hospital where it can be crucial to save someone s life. This is the context that the government, local authorities, development and rescue force or team that are being engage in the rescue and the redevelopment of the people from the affected freehold acknowledge and the initiatives taken by the researchers to bring out this important aspect to save the environment and as well as walk on something that can promote the uses of renewable energy on a global basis and its usefulness can  understandable from the following research work and this is the overall rationally of the research that is presented in the introduction chapter (Ahmad et al. 2018). The below figure shows the average number of natural disaster that the countries is facing. As from the figure it has been observed that the number of the natural disaster is being occurring more in case of developing and under developing countries as compared to the developing countries. As it shows that a lot of work is being required in the development of the technology to produce the electricity from the renewable sources.

Availability of the Solar and Wind Energy

As the major implementation of this thesis is lies on the availability of the renewable energy that is the solar and wind energy across the world. As the feasibility of the model is based on the availability of the solar energy received on a particular area in the region or the movement of the winds in the particular region. As if the model is being set up in a region where there is the frequently supply of the renewable energy.

From the above figure shows the distribution of the solar renewable energy across the world in terms of the “Twh” of the average energy received by the Sun in a particular region. As it shows the region near the equator received more energy as compared to that in the poles. In the equatorial region it has been observed that around more than 60 “Twh” energy is being received as the region of the equator is receiving more and parallel amount of the heat and it is further observed that on moving away from the equator the amount of the solar energy received in a particular area by the sun is being decreasing. As it is being observed in the China, United States of America, India, Germany etc., are the once that received more solar energy as compared to the other parts of the region (Bronder, 2019). So, the suitable sites for the application of the models are the region is region which receive at least more than 25 “Twh” for making its a feasible option for the establishment of the model as for the production of the electricity by the use of the solar or wind turbine in the region of natural disaster or in case of the war. If possible, at the time of the redevelopment the energy can be stored in the battery and can be supplied to the effected zone from the region of excessive solar radiation.

As contradictory to the solar form the movement of the winds are due to the gyroscopic effect. As the earth is revolving around the sun followed by rotation around its own axis as this creates the movements of the atmosphere around the earth. The movements of the earth are being different in the different region of the earth. In the above shows the capacity of the different countries to produce the electricity as it has been observed that the developed countries are capable of producing the electricity from the winds that will be successfully utilises in the redevelopment process in case of the natural disaster and can send relief to the region of war affected region or helps the some of the other countries to helps in the generation of the electricity from the solar and wind by the suitable sharing of the technology so that at the time of the natural disaster or during the redevelopment after the war, there should be continuous supply of the electricity that is needed at most.

1.8 Summary

This is the beginning piece of this research in which there has been an overview of both solar and wind energy. The reason for the development of these energies is clear in this context. The mechanism of both energies has been discussed. The issues for which both of these energies have become a matter of concern have been highlighted. Moreover, the aim, objectives, and questions of the research have been briefly discussed.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

Current innovative advancements have worked with the optimal use of wealth through sustainable power assets, such as sunlight based and air based. These days, the possibility of half breed frameworks, such as utilising sun oriented and wind oriented energy, has become the norm for generating power around the world. In this way, different investigations have been directed at the double frameworks of photovoltaic by coordinating them with wind turbines, expecting to increase the change ineffectiveness and, afterwards, increase the usage of environmentally friendly power assets. It should also be mentioned that focusing on taking advantage of the efficient power energy assets isn t just for delivering smooth and solid electrical power; it is also more practical than those methods which come from ordinary ways. Nevertheless, because sun based and wind based energy resources are uncertain wellsprings of energy, the utilisation of the cross breed frameworks approach could give a better chance for the consistent generation of power (Almeida et al.) concentrated on the design and execution of photovoltaic and wind turbine frameworks joined by a repository framework. Their results were also compared to a half breed photovoltaic/wind turbine framework with the same technical and financial issues.

Currently, the concept of hybrid techniques by the utilization of solar, as well as, wind energy has been familiar attitudes to generate power internationally. Hence, several types of research have been directed on binary techniques of solar amalgamated with Wind Turbine (WT) targeting to increase the transformation productivity (Ali et al. 2022) and maximize the usage of solar, as well as, wind energy. As these resources are an incalculable medium of energy, the utilization of these energies will be proved to be better for a consistent power supply. The researcher has observed that initiating a combined system of photovoltaic and Wind Turbines is very efficient.

According to the author, Wind Power Generation transmogrifies wind energy within electric energy. Wind creating set assimilates wind energy along with a blade that has been designed specifically and transforms wind energy within mechanical energy. This further operates the generator that rotates and acknowledges the transformation of wind energy into electrical energy. The frequently utilized Wind Power Generation techniques consist of the generation of wind power which is driven directly. Moreover, it includes a set of generations of wind power which is double feed. The connection of the former is with a converter that is fully powered. On the other hand, the connection of the latter is with a converter that is double feed (Al Mhairat and Al Quraan, 2022).

According to Silver 2019, the author elaborated in his research journal about the design for the wind propellers that can be used in the generators which needs the kinetic power of wind as the source of the generator, the author stated in his findings about wind turbine design and innovation was developed long ago. The main driving force for wind energy is energy costs, which is the inspiration for stronger and larger propellers. Streamlined function and aero elasticity gradually reached the most extreme practice. In any case, the basic reliability requirements for very large sharp edges make it important to find a compromise between the ideal aero elastic design and the basic layout (Joskow, 2019). The greatest potential for further developing the expression and reliability of wind energy and reducing energy consumption lies in improving material design and assembly processes. and thermoplastics grid materials, all requiring a more principal comprehension of assembling issues and restoring energy. Sandwich materials are layered developments and center materials where weight investment funds and primary execution are in center, considering empty parts and energy and clamor retaining materials (designed froths). On the micro scale, better execution can be gotten by testing the connection points and interphones, joining information from and research in both polymer science and materials mechanics. All this finding is crucial for the assessment of the given study.

According to Winchester 2018, The findings of the author and the statement of vision about the main component of the solar power generators, the working aspects of the solar panels, the statement of the author goes like a solar powered charger simply alludes to a board supposed to assimilate the beams from the solar as a wellspring of power for generating energy or warming (M. and Alwall, 2018). A photovoltaic (PV) module is a bundle accumulating generally of 6×10 photovoltaic solar primarily based total cells. The solar primarily based totally molecular is the essential shape rectangular of a PV energy framework. Therefore, it s far seldom applied solely since it can t deliver a digital machine with sufficient voltage and energy. In this manner, several photovoltaic cells are related in the same or collection to perform as better voltage and energy yield as may want to definitely be expected. Cells related in collection expands the voltage yield whilst cells related in the same increment the current. Each PV molecule is constructed from semi manual material, for example, silicon, that s a gift the most often concerned aspect within side the semiconductor business. Essentially, whilst the mild moves the molecule, a selected part of its far assimilated within side the semiconductor material. This assimilated power thumps semiconductor electrons loose from the debris within side the semiconductor material, letting them movement uninhibitedly (Anjum et al. 2019).

PV cells have at least one electric powered field that demonstrates to constrain electrons which are liberated through mild ingestion to movement in a selected course. The development of those electrons achieves electric powered float and through setting metallic contacts on the pinnacle and decreasing a part of the PV molecule, the electrical float may be drawn for outer use. This float at the side of the maxillula’s voltage that s an after effect of the inherent electric powered field, signifies the energy that the solar orientated can deliver. Thus, PV modules make use of mild power (photons) from the Sun to create energy via the photovoltaic effect as clarified previously. A few top notch varieties of PV modules comprise concentrators wherein mild is engaged through focal factors or mirrors onto extra modest cells. This works with the usage of cells with great price in step with unit location in a significant way (Kasapba?i, 2019).

According to James 2018, the author stated in his research paper about the solar array as a key component that can be used in the solar power generator. The findings of the author are, the space of the mechanical assembly to generate power can be represented by the fully mentioned device for powering at a fixed flow rate and electrolyte temperature until the electrical output drops to a specified minimum. The total amount of work. Decreased levels that can be imagined or recorded (Gambhir et al. 2018). It is reported in units of percentage of electrical flow time. How much space there is in the mechanical assembly to generate the flux also depends on the temperature of the device for supplying the flux and the phase of its presence.  Most PV structural electrical units consist of the lead letters used for printing, which consists of a space of at least 2V. Each small room has a positive peroxide lead plate and a non lead wipe lead plate. The electrolyte is slightly sulphur corrosive. During “stoppage, damping, and momentum,” the material of the two plates changes to lead sulphate and water, which increases the electrolyte and weakens its extraordinary weight.  At the point where the device that produces the flow of electricity by passing is mentioned, the opposite material reaction occurs through the flow of electricity in the opposite direction. The small space estimated by the volt is the typical 2.4V and 1.9V of a deeply given device, fully mentioned for generating the flow of electricity independently. Lead corrosive electrical units slowly autolyze when not in use (Thompson et al. 2020).

According to Stephany 2020, the author stated in her research paper about the heating and overcharging issues related to the generators tricking multiple electrical devices results in electrolyte loss, slow decay, plate development, and loss of activity of the materials bonded in the plates, resulting in more moderately sized replicas appearing in the electrical flow devices. In addition, obsolete parameters updated to prolong the service life also cause the release of electrolyte. This concept is important for further development as alternatives to the development of gasoline and diesel generators may be beneficial to many (A. and M Ali, 2019). After a disaster, this type of fuel source for power generation is not widely available to everyone after a disaster. natural disasters so the work related to designing generators that can power objects or appliances even if electricity doesn t come back quickly. On the other hand, the generator must be portable so that it can be quickly transported to an area damaged by natural disasters and supplied with electricity. Therefore, advanced controllers are needed to improve the mechanical assembly to generate the presence of electrical flow. regulators typically run high flow charging systems and switch from exceptionally low levels to other structures when certain devices need to provide an electrical flow. Judging by the numbers, the computer based electronic control unit duplicates the device that applies the current, determines how much power is supplied, and controls the flow and outcome of information, preventing both fraud and ultra high volume substances. The findings are crucial for this particular research paper (Piana, 2018).

According to Firas 2020, the author stated in her research paper about the “design and development of dual power generation solar and windmill generators”. Global warming is a major issue that encourages government, local authorities, development and rescue force or team that are being engage in the rescue and the redevelopment of the people from the affected area to solve problems. The renewable energy resource like wind and solar is one of the common sources for the substitute source of energy. In this journal the author aims to use solar and wind energy “to produce the maximum possible output power”. During this project a charge controller is also used to enhance the comprehensive “energy transformation efficiency” (LoRusso, 2020). The system can nearby generate average energy up to the 61.730 which on a daily basis and annual output power is around the 207.5 kwh. In the journal the author elaborates that solar is the main source to generate the energy and wind is the secondary source to generate the energy. The author also elaborates that the safety factor is also important to calculate for the industrial safety purpose. However, this journal details are critical for this particular research paper.

The figure shows the CO2 global emission of the total international shipping. The relevant commitment of the last gases “methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons” is lower. Medium time frame circumstances show that during 2050, withinside the shortfall of rebate strategies, CO2 emanations from boats may likewise furthermore blast through 150 250%.

According to Sitharthan 2019, the author stated in her research paper about the automated PM strategy for the wind power generation. Electrical energy assumes a significant part in each part of the day to day routine of human culture. Environmentally friendly power sources (RERs) assume a significant part in power age, and it is assessed that by 2020, worldwide power age from RERs will represent 45%. Of the different RERs, the breeze power framework (WPGS) has turned into the most famous energy source somewhat recently because of its tidiness and low upkeep exertion (M.T. and Kazem, 2018). The author elaborates that the proposed technique resolves the issue of adjusting the power created by WPGS with the power interest of the unique burden. The objective of this journal is to ensure the predefined solidarity to the heaps. However, a coherent worked move and a fluffy rationale basically based on a thoroughly pitch regulator has been proposed. Intelligently worked exchanging machines are utilised for computerised control in view of customer power prerequisites. However, this journal details are critical for this particular research paper.

According to Garyfallos 2020, this journal is about the design and operation for the power system with the help of renewable energy and power storage. The system that utilises RES to create energy have procured sped up interest in current years as a result of their sizeable ecological merits contrary to conventional energy innovation systems that depend on petroleum derivatives. However, RES fundamentally based absolute energy innovation structures expressed in posted writing hold onto power from explicit assortments of sustainable assets through utilisation of contraptions including PV boards, wind turbines and hydro turbines (Jahangiri et al. 2020). Compound gatherers inside the state of batteries are as often as possible used to address the unreasonable fluctuation found in RES and change the energy supply. However, this journal details are critical for this particular research paper.

According to Samiksha 2018, “power generation of solar and wind energy”. Nowadays the progress of conventional energy sources is increasing. The author suggested that electricity is one of the major needs in today s world. All regular energy assets are drained each day, and the disadvantage of their utilisation is natural contamination. However, the author of this journal shifted it to the particular “conventional to non conventional energy resources” . Many kinds of perfect and environmentally friendly power sources can be utilised to produce electrical energy. In this journal, there are two energy sources, a mix of wind energy and sun powered energy. This cycle re establishes manageable energy assets without hurting nature. Basically, this system includes the reconciliation of two energy systems that give nonstop power (Poudyal et al. 2019). Sun powered chargers are utilised to change over sun based energy into power, and wind turbines are utilised to change over wind energy into power. This electrical energy can be utilised for an assortment of purposes. This venture will chip away at power age utilising a mix of two power sources, empowering them to create power at a sensible expense without upsetting the equilibrium of nature. However, this journal details are critical for this particular research paper.

According to Sharif 2018, the author elaborated in his research paper about the sustainable power sources, for example, wind and sunlight based energy to expand the aggregate Creates power, in this way expanding the proficiency of the framework. Additionally, the mix Gives a way to defeat the discontinuous idea of inexhaustible sun based and wind energy The source is on the grounds that it tends to be utilised to create the other source when one source is inaccessible. The AC DC converter changes over the AC voltage of the breeze power generator A consistent DC esteem that can be utilised to charge the battery or later changed over to AC voltage Drives an AC load (Al Hardanee, 2019). “Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) system” with help converter It is intended to extricate however much energy as could be expected from the sun when accessible. Thus, Consonant decrease is improved on the grounds that the symphonies parts are unsafe to the generator Administration life, warming issues and productivity. While mindful of the decreasing stock of petroleum derivatives and their unfavourable impact on the climate, worldwide aspects right now are moving nearer to sustainable power sources, for example, sun based, wind, bioenergy, hydro, geothermal, and sea forces of their endeavours to ensure power security. In present circumstances, each in advanced and developing global areas, utilising inexhaustible power has improved fundamentally. REN21 s Global Status Report on Renewables 2014 shows that, in 2012, sustainable power represented an imagined 19% of politically influential nation admission in contrast with 16.7% in 2010.

According to Vijaya2018, the author elaborated in her research paper that Interestingly, by the end of 2015, the global limit for solar energy had exceeded the 227 GW peak limits. As mentioned above, PV modules are designed for outdoor use and can be used in a variety of harsh environments such as desert, sea, jungle, cold and space conditions. A variety of dynamic PV materials are available, and the decision of which material to use for each situation will affect the design and implementation of the PV frame (Majeed, 2020). These materials differ from each other with regard to their composition and nuclear design. The nuclear design of a photovoltaic cell can be based on one of three main types. single gemstone (single crystal), polycrystalline or fuzzy silicon; The most commonly supplied and used photovoltaic materials are translucent silicone, polycrystalline or monocrystalline. The biggest advantage of unspecified silicon solar cells is that they can be stored in many different forms, such as roof tiles, which opens up new horizons for the potential use of solar systems.  A photovoltaic board, also called a photovoltaic module, is a set of photovoltaic cells that protects the cell phone and provides an operating voltage. A photovoltaic cell is a sensitive component made in the form of a delicate sheet and is susceptible to erosion from moisture and fingerprints. Additionally, the operating voltage of a single photovoltaic cell is very low, typically less than 1V, which is unsatisfactory for some useful applications. Also, depending on the manufacturer and the type of solar material used, the appearance of the module (e.g., a pale blue or green tint) and workmanship may vary (Al Hamadani, 2020).

According to Timo 2018, in this journal the author will elaborate about the “solar and wind power supply by storage technology”. Energy provision is always an essential aspect for world technological development. The power supply comes from burning fossil fuels. Fossil fuel is limited and it s increasing the demand in the present time. This present “power production units are low efficiency, high polluting sources, which increase environmental challenges” (Herman et al. 2022). However, to overcome this problem in this journal the author will elaborate about the several challenges. Nowadays, all over the world everyone is trying to add the technological factor to use it on the renewable energy source. The world s sustainable power supply needs to make a “higher contribution to power generation”. Solar and wind power are the most proficient and notable environmentally friendly power sources and growing quickly. In any case, sustainable power sources, for example, solar and wind have the innate difficulties of disturbance and shakiness.

Through the figure the government, local authorities, development and rescue force or team that are being engage in the rescue and the redevelopment of the people from the affected area can acknowledge the global energy consumption demand in all over the world. However, most of the energy consumption comes from oil and that is about 33%. After that, most energy consumption comes from coal and it is around 28 %. in the figure it shows around 85% consumption energy supplies low level technology usage.

According to Boris 2018, the author elaborated in his research paper about the energy era, solar based is an ideal innovation due to its low operating noise and slightly minimal effort. Expected work life of 25 years from the start. The setup cost is $ 1,830 / kW and is now normal 18% solar based energy conversion efficiency drives current solar based cost and space requirements execution. Future solar charger efficiency is generally expected to increase to 2022% The cost and space required to implement a similar level of troop deployment will be reduced accordingly (Rahman, 2020). Lithium particle batteries are now, and sooner or later, becoming any mode of energy storage. Innovation needs to evolve, despite the fact that stream batteries offer promising strengths in the long run. In order for this lithium particle innovation to be novel, the author stated that they need to reduce costs. Lead acid batteries Very short life due to the small number of cycles, a minimal cost choice that is not recommended. Hydrogen batteries have also been studied, but studies are less efficient and generally Due to the cost, there are limits to these non essential, limited scale applications.  The wisest fuel choice for frames over 150kW has low starting costs, The tank size required for fuel is much smaller. Propane is recommended for frames less than 150kW Higher price than diesel and less particulate matter (PM10) overall, so fuel type Drain.

According to Andrew 2020, the author elaborated in his research paper that the power vs. velocity curve has a lonely apparent peak. Let s say we work at the top, Slight increases or decreases in turbine speed do not adjust performance. It yields because the vertices are locally in the plane. What is important as a whole the speed conditions at the most extreme PowerPoint are: This standard is used in control plots. The speed will increase or decrease a little. It improves, performance is consistently estimated, and ΔP / Δω is consistently evaluated. In that case This ratio is positive (Saleem et al. 2019). In other words, you can get more power by increasing the speed. It will be further expanded. Assuming the ratio is negative, Age of Power will do so again It will decrease if you keep changing the speed. Speed is kept at the same level as anywhere ?P / ?ω is almost nothing. This strategy is indifferent to nearby wind speed errors Estimate wind turbine plans and go beyond that. Therefore, this is the recommended technique. In one in different mechanical wind farms, each turbine needs to be limited by its own control loop Features and security capabilities have been integrated. That is a key finding which is stated by the author.

 State of the art and gaps in Literature

The researcher has read various publications to gain information on the present influence of solar and wind energy resources and the power generation models. By critical analysis, the researcher has concluded that this is a considerably easy subject for research, as well as several scholars have already completed work on it. Despite this, a significant gap in previous researchers study has been observed. The present day generators are based on the purpose of serving domestic and industrial uses only. They require huge space in installation and are very highly priced with less efficiencies. Most researchers have mostly concentrated on the definition of wind and solar energy resources, as well as the reasons why scientists prefer to grow in the field of energy resources by investing in hybrid energy. But this hybrid models are restricted only to the locations where both the sources are available. There are very few locations which has a constant supplies of both. Aside from it, if the production unit is large then it is located far away from the area of use, which is mostly seen in wind turbine power generators. It associates with transmission and cable lining issues. But as said before, these are only limited to domestic and industrial uses only. No one has worked in this field in terms of making an portable power generator which can be used in emergency situations. For example, Skellington, and James explored the relevance of hybrid solar and wind energy in ecosystems all over the globe in their essay. The findings of the authors James 2018, about the various parts and designing method of one of the key components of the generator that is using solar radiation as the prime source to produce energy as the form of an electrical output. The main gaps about the findings in the research paper is the mechanical assembly relate work of the solar array and the establishment of the array in the total modular parts of the generator needs to be explained in depts, what is the prime measurements and designing processor of the array needs to be clarified by the authors in his research paper.

The previous works done are confined to only industrial and domestic use, which are not transportable and requires high time for installation.

The study made use of scientifically indirect databases for analysis and scientific research, as well as a framework for searching, assessment, synthesis, and analysis. Using specified search engine terms, the number of publications associated with PV WT. On the basis of the study of a number of hospital case studies, they suggested that the incorporation of interprofessional collaboration into a medical team will be beneficial to hospitals that implement HIE. The research team suggested that future studies incorporate art and planning processes, as well as environmental assessment and social vulnerability, in addition to their research.

 Problem Statement

The present day technology might help people in many ways, but it may drain them financially as it is very costly and comes with less efficiencies. Present days model are limited to only household and industrial uses only. This also has Despite several having positive contributions, both of these energies harm people, especially those who are prone to disaster. Mainly due to the huge cost, people are unable to afford these energies and are much disappointed. Hence, this research is very mandatory for the enhancement of these energies. The designing and enhancement of both winds, as well as solar energy has been an issue as the electricity produced by these energies is of high costs as compared to several other renewable sources. Moreover, the transmission lines transfer electricity from that of power plants to big cities, enterprises, and several other places where there has been a requirement of these energies. The usefulness of these energies is certainly situated more faraway as compared to that of other sources of energy. Hence, they want the establishment of the latest, costly and contentious transmission lines and it is very difficult to be established. Both the wind, as well as the sun is considered renewable resources (Abualigah et al. 2022). The desire for electricity, nonetheless, accompanies a similar pattern. With regards to wind electricity, the generation of electricity is somewhat higher at the time of night as compared to that of daytime. However, the desire for electricity is less at night as compared to that of daytime.

Wind energy is the issue now as it is uncertain. Its uncertainty is due to the flowing of wind energy only at the time of blowing of the wind. Moreover, the quantity of wind energy that has been produced with the help of turbines relies on the speed of the wind. The turbines by which this energy has been produced harm wildlife. Noise is another factor that hampers the utility of this energy. On the other hand, solar energy is a matter of concern now as its reliability is not being concerned as 100%. The using of solar panels has indeed huge advantages (Gribkova, and Milshina, 2022). However, they are expensive. This energy is not much efficient. Several complications have been noticed at the time of the movement of technologies of solar energy which includes a solar panel.

What would the researcher highlight?

The researcher can discuss the process by which both the energies can be developed so that the sufferings of miserable people especially in disaster prone areas will be minimized. In addition to that, the technologies will be analyzed by the researcher by which the enhancement of these two energies will be possible to a great extent. The researcher may shed light on the mitigation of the challenges in the context of both of these energies (Arraño Vargas et al. 2022).

 Research Aim

This research aims to detect the ways and technologies by which both the solar and wind energies based on power generators will be developed.

1.6 Research Objectives

The objectives of this research are:

  1. To analyze the issue in the enhancement of wind and solar energy
  2. To scrutinize the way by which challenges in developing wind and solar energy will be mitigated
  3. To recommend the technologies which can modernize both wind and solar energy

1.7 Research Questions

The research questions are as follows:

  1. What are the issues in the enhancement of wind and solar energy?
  2. How do the challenges in developing wind and solar energy will be mitigated?
  3. What are the technologies that can modernize both wind and solar energy?

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

At first, the comprehensive research regarding the solar and wind energy based power generators was performed. Significant idea is that these renewable energy sources are cost effective and easy to use particularly in emergency situations.  The scientists findings revealed that combining these two modes of power generations are far more economical in remote areas. Different factors like air speed, loads and principles of power production (in case of wind) and absence of sunlight (in case of solar energy) often effect the productivity of these methods. These issues need to be resolved.

After performing the research, following models was generated to make the wind power generation more reliable and effective. The suggested system is composed of four components: a photovoltaic Solar panel, a horizontal spinning WT, an electric power collection device, and a microprocessor to manage the loading voltage of the PV device to the ESS framework. The described process produces a mean voltage output of 61.729W each day. As a result, the device has a yearly electrical output of around 207.4 kWh. Additionally, such statistics indicate that this technology outperforms both the photovoltaic panels and the breeze device when it s used separately.

A significant factor which greatly contributes to decide the type of turbine is the wind velocity. It changes with elevation, and calculated using the following equations:

? = ? ?? ( ? − ? ?? )

Where, ? = h????????? ????????

? = h???h? ?? ??????

?0 = ????h???? ?????h

? = ???? ????? h???h?

? = ?h???????????? ???????y

Air velocity is usually measured from such a standard altitude. The accompanying electricity formula could be used to calculate the relationship between wind direction and frequency at a given altitude.

? = ???? ? ???? ? ′

???? = ???????? ?? ????????? 

???? = ????????? h???h? 

? ′ = ???????????? ?????? (17 ??? ???? ?????)

3.1 Density and Longitudinal Energy

The total pressure exerted by the air flow is obtained by the following formula when evaluating the boundary condition for a wind turbine:

∑?? = ∫?? uρ u. d A

= ?( ?? − ?? )

Subscripts ‘0’ implies upstream velocity & ‘2’ indicates downstream velocity 

? = ????? ??????? 

? = ???? ???? ???? (?? /?)

?? = ? (?? – ?? )

The relationship represents the fluid s volume movement frequency:

? = ?????? = ?????? = ?????2

3.2 Calculation of Power Generation          

The following formula is used to get the efficiency generated by unsteady flow:

? /? + ?/ ? ? ? + ?? = ???????? ????? ?????? ???e

Whether any fuel is consumed, the connection could be reconstructed

?0/ ? + 1 /2 ?0 2 + ?h0 = ?2?+12?22+ ?h2+???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????????e

The power removed out from flow path is characterised by the accompanying equation as electricity is transferred by that of the propeller fans and transformed to reciprocating engines:

???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? = ? /? (?? ? − ?? ?

In respect to power: 

????? ??????? ???? ?????????? = ?/ ? ? (?? ? − ?? ? )

Calculations for coupled mass and energy

The power removed out from flow path, and therefore the turbine s output, could be expressed as:

?? = ? (?? − ?? ) ?? = ? /? ? (?? ? − ?? ? ) ?? ? − ?? ? = (?? + ?? )(?? – ??) , 

?h?? ????????? ?h??, ?1 = 1 /2 (?0 + ?2)

The proportionate variation in air velocity at windmill location is the interfering component (a). The component is specifically defined:

? = (?0 − ?1)/?0

The turbine s energy may alternatively be found to be a combination of both the surface fanned either by rotors, the wind velocity, as well as the viscosity of the material, in this instance the volume of atmosphere.

?? = 4?(1 − ?) 2 1/ 2 ??1?0 3

Or, 

?? = ???0

Where, ?? = the power coefficient of the turbine 

?? = 4? (1 − ?) 2

3.3 Designing Rotors Using Aerodynamic Characteristics

The blade layout of a turbines is considered as another hard technical aspect. But keeping the main characteristics in focus like curvature and angle a good blade can be designed as shown in figure

Chapter 4: Data Analysis

4.1 Introduction

This chapter explains the information that is collected from numerous sources for determining the design principles and elements used for the system design. The urbanization of the cities and the rapidly increasing population are causing the high rise in demand for electrical power. As a result, traditional energy supplies such as chemical fuels are rapidly diminishing. Furthermore, global warming has become a pressing concern that must be tackled immediately. In recent decades, the solar and wind energy industries have risen significantly in respect of output and usage. In today s reality, hybrid systems that combine solar and wind power are becoming standard ways to power generation.

4.2 Experimental Setup

4.3. Software Requirements

MATLAB

MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a high computing system and collaborative ecosystem for mathematical computing, visualisation, and scripting that was developed in the 4th generation. It supports matrices transformations, functionality and data charting, algorithm execution, user input design, and connecting with programmes written in other languages such as C, C++, Java, and Fortran. It comes with several built in instructions and mathematical algorithms to assist users with complex equations, graphic generation, and statistical procedures.

SIMULINK

Simulink is a multi domain modelling and Model Based Designing brick diagramming platform. It helps with integrated systems development, modelling, automated software creation, and continual testing and validation. Simulink is a tool for modelling and reproducing nonlinear processes that include a visual designer, customisable block frameworks, and solutions. The MATLAB workspace is intimately connected with the Simulink programme. It depends on MATLAB to create and assess modelling and block variables, thus it must be installed. Several MATLAB functionalities are also available in Simulink. The developed model should be saved for further evaluation and display.

4.4 Result Analysis and Discussion

In this thesis the simulation of the model is being done in the MATLAB Software. Both the model that is the production of the electricity from the renewable sources that is from the use of the solar and wind energy. As both this energy source is being widely used throughout the planet but their intensity is a matter of the concern. In this thesis there are two model are being analysed. In the first model the model the power is being produced by the use of the solar model then followed by the wind models. After the analysis of the both the models their output is being analysed in different term as discussed below.

Solar

The first model that is being used in this thesis is the solar model. In here the simulation is being done in the MATLAB different parameters that are obtains from the simulation is being shown below. 

Solar Model Circuit Diagram

The above figure shows the circuit diagram of the Solar Model that is being used in the research of this thesis. As shown from the circuit diagram that the input of this model followed by the by the various path that is being followed in the order of the production of the electricity from the solar input. As it has been observed that form that Solar input is been taken in the PV cell and the output of this PV cell is then monitored and this further connected to a capacitor in parallel as this is used to take care of the voltage fluctuation and then a monitor is being also being connected parallel (Adeyoyin et al. 2019). So that to measure the voltage or the current fluctuation that has been produces till now. All this is being further connected to the inventor as the main aim of the solar inventor here is the conversion of the input to the three phase output AC current so that this can be further used by the different appliance that is being used by the different equipment during the disaster management or the redevelopment of the affected area during the wars. As all the modern days equipment use mostly the AC input supplies. The output of this inventor is being again supplies to the monitor so that it can be checked further that the output of the inventor is suitable for the used or further some modification is being needed on it. Then the output is again sent to the filter and then from the filter to the controller to control the voltage and current in order to control the power as that is being supplied to the various equipment’s. As the output of the controller is being supplied to two parts as one of the parts is being sends to the grids via a controller and the seconds supplies is being supplied to the load as that is being needed by the various machinery that is been used the electricity. All the different components of the model are being successfully created in the models in the MATLAB and after the successful design the stimulation of the model will also be done in the MATLAB (Borodinecs et al. 2022).

Solar PV

As the previous section, the circuit diagram of the entire models is been discussed in details. On the detail description the first component of the models is the Solar Photo voltaic Cells. The most important component of the solar models is the Solar Photo voltaic cell as they will receive the solar energy that is coming from the sun and converted in the suitable electric DC current. As in the figure below the irradiation the sun is imputing on the solar panel is 1000 KW/m2 irradiation and the solar angle of the incidence on the solar input is 25 degrees as the input that is being provided input the model that is being used in the analysis of the solar model (O. and Lahn, 2018). From there one of the outputs is being sent to the monitoring system followed by the connection in the series and the parallel connection to the capacitor in order to remove the variation of the energy that is being produced to by the solar panel as this is being further supplies to the different parts that is being needed in the various part of the model. As through the monitor it is observed that the produced energy is being suitable for the further used in the production of the electricity or not with the given amount of the power supplies. 

The next important part of the solar model that is being used is the Solar Controller. The circuit diagram of the solar controller is been shown in the figure above. As the main function of the Solar Controller is used for to prevent the overcharging of the battery that is being used for the storage of the excess power that is being produce in the generation of the power from the solar panel. As this can be successfully done by the regulating the different parameter that is voltage and current that is coming as an input to the solar panel (Bolton, 2019). The circuit diagram of the solar controller is being used in this model is been shown in the figure above. As it is shown that after the supply of the three phase current then the input to this controller is again filter and the output of this filter is being send to the R – C circuit as after it passes through the R – C circuit the output is again measure and the one of the outputs of the earlier output of the monitor is the is being send to a closed circuit. As in the closed circuit the through the use of the PID the voltage and current is being controlled. As the output of the Solar Controller is being send for the output use as one part to the grid and the next part to the loads that is required output of the model.

The next important part of the solar model that is being used is the solar inventor. The circuit diagram of the solar inventor is been shown in the figure above. The main purpose of the solar panels is to transfer the solar energy that is being produced in the solar photo volcanic cells to the other member of the solar model that is being used here. As this inventor is used the MOSFET bridge as shown in the figure above as it is seen that the pulse that is being provided input to this MOSFET bridge and through this bridge the pulse is being converted into the 3 phase the sine wave. As the photo voltaic cells is been provided output in terms of the DC current which must be converted in the AC form so that all the different appliance that will use the power in the form the AC so that it has less losses. As modern day appliance is being used for the use the AC current. The output of the solar inventor is then again sent into the monitor for the measure the 3 phase sine wave AC power that is being produced as the output of the inventor (A. and Lekavi?ius, 2021). 

The graph is obtained after the successful stimulation of the solar model that is being developed in the earlier. As the graph is used to show the different voltage that are there in the model circuit. The input condition to the graph is the been discussed earlier the 1000 KW/m2 radiation that is been given input to the sun to the solar PV and the angle of the solar irradiation of the solar input is the 25 degrees. It has been for the given input is the that the maximum value of the photovoltaic cell is 350 volts as this voltage of the photovoltaic cells is been used to charge the barriers for the storage of the voltage as that is in the second part of the figure as then voltage of the battery is around is around 350 voltages considering no major loss. In the last part of the figure, it shows the Voltage of the Load as it shows that the value is 0 which signifies that either load is not connected or the load although being connected but not charging in the current movement (Báez, 2018).

The above figure shows the current that are being there in the model. It shows that for the given input condition. As for the particular solar input condition the current consumption is for the photo voltaic cells is 0 as is it is due to because the load which will consume the power from this model is either not connected means not there or the load is connects but switch off condition that is does not consume any power so in that case the photo voltaic cell current is 0 as shown in the first part of the figure. In the second part of the figure, it is showing the current in the battery as initially it has been observed that the initial current is around 250 Ampere. But as the load draw the zero power that means signifies that the current of the load is zero. So as the load is not drawing any current so the battery current is being decreasing and reached to a value zero suddenly or less then some iteration as shown in the middle part of the figure as shown in the above figure.

As the above figure show the graph that is being obtained for the Power at the different section. In the first part of the figure is the photo voltaic cells power and the power of the photo voltaic cells is around 0 watts although the voltage input to the photo voltaic cell is around 350 voltages but the value of the current is 0 as the power is the products of the voltage and current so the power of the photo voltaic cell is zero. In case of the battery the power is tending towards zero as observed in the second part of the figure.  As the voltage of the battery is around 350 voltages but as the power of the battery is tending to 0 that makes the power output of the battery is also tending zero and the nature of the power distribution is same as that of the current graph of the battery (Stathis, 2020).

Wind

The above figure is the circuit diagram of the wind model that is being design in the MATLAB as the different components of the model is shown in the figure above. The rotational motion of the torque of the generator is being supplied as the input to the 3 phase synchronous generator where the output is AC which is again transfer to the bridge rectifier as in there the AC is again converted in the DC where through the buck and booster converter the amplitude of the DC can be increased or decreased as per required then it is from the convertor is again converted in the AC as in order to this successfully it is passed through the inventor (Brelje, 2021). After passing through the inventor, it is then passed through the filter as from there it is then passed to the supply of the load

Wind MPPT

The above figure shows the Maximum power point tracker of the wind turbine. The input to the wind turbine MPPT is the Direct Current Voltage and Current. This voltage and current is then passed through a closed circuit which contains a feedback monitor as this feedback monitor is used to manage the power output of by controlling the voltage and current do the DC as there will be difference in the magnitude of the power requirement at the time of the redevelopment during the natural disaster and war and to take care of it properly.

The above figure shows the graph of the different parameter of wind turbines like the torque produces, rotor speed, the current and the voltage produce in the synchronous generator. As in the torque graph, it is evicted that for the first few steps the torque produce is less than a thresholds valve and similarly the graph of the other parameter is also less like the rpm, voltage, current but after reaching the threshold value the torque is increase followed by the increase in the other parameter and this is continued for a longer period of time (Limpitlaw, 2021).  

The above graph shows the power output, voltage and the current that is been produce by the by the rotational movement of the wind turbine in the synchronous generator. From the graph it is observed the different parameter value such as voltage is around a value of 20V with a peak of 60 V. The similarly after the threshold limits the current output is been increased from around 180 A to a value of 300 A.

The output of the model this wind model is being shown in the above graph as the AC voltage is being fluctuating in the limit of 200 V but as the load is not been connected so the load does not draw nay current so the output voltage and power is been zero. 

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

The paper of research has elaborated the performance for the dual form of power generation for the generators of the solar and windmills. The paper discusses the design and the development of the dual type of renewable power of the generating system. The proposed form of the system mainly comprises the four types of ingredients that are known to be solar PV module, WT that could be rotated horizontally, a storage system for energy, and also a microcontroller for controlling the power of the charge from the PV WT system to the ESS system. The system can generate higher outputs and greater power. The system can deliver a superior form of performance as compared to the modules (Lee et. al. 2022) of solar and wind systems working individually. To design a portable type of device for the generation of power, the device has been important for mitigating the issues of power cuts in the areas of emergency. The concern is to develop the devices to work completely in a portable format. The process of designing the concern is being focussed on the geographical forms of the climatic situations for climatic for various zones.

Cold regions like the Arctic region could not be provided with the portable form of solar panels as in these regions there stands to be no chance for sunlight. There is also the need to provide the portable form of windmills as the areas for the significant range for the supply of winds that could be utilized by the devices for generating the power. While conducting the experiments, the solar type panels have been working as the primary source for the energy generated while the system of the winds worked as the secondary form of energy during the solar period. In the process to develop the emergency type of the electric form of generators, the viability for all the devices were tested for enhancement (Zhao et. al. 2022) the standard type of devices and their capability to work properly. Therefore, the set of emergencies should be transferred to a safe and secure place that might be away from the supply area of main power for ensuring that no problem could cause the rise for utilizing them. The supply for the energy should be done by certain types of emergency and vital tools and also the used machinery (Britoet. al. 2022) for ensuring that it could be easily utilized and also navigated properly.

5.2 The linkage with the objectives

The researcher needs to compare the questionnaires that are being based on the objectives of the research. The chapters of the dissertation should anyway link with each other. The objectives of the research are the fact that the project is being conducted with and also being related to review of the literature and data analysis parts as well.

Objective 1:

To analyse the enhancement of wind and solar energy

Taking the help of the research, the researcher of the project gets to know the benefits of solar and wind energy in today’s world and its efficient use as natural resources. The objective of the research has been discussed in the review of the literature and based on it certain questions are being evaluated.

Objective 2:

To scrutinize the way by which challenges in developing wind and solar energy will be mitigated.

The three most major barriers caused towards the greater use of solar as well as the wind energy use in electricity is their higher costs than many of the alternative forms of the electric sources. It also involves the transmission that has been insufficient (Huisman et. al. 2022) and also managing the variable form of electricity types of outputs from the sources.

Objective 3:

To recommend the technologies which can modernize both wind and solar energy

The advancement in wind technology is the bigger form of blades (Guan et al. 2022), the taller towers, the increase in the production of energy, and also the growth in the recycling of turbines while the advancement in solar energy is the application of solar power in the buildings, the solar type of fuels and also the advances in the solar powers

5.3 Limitations for study

The researcher has conducted the whole project by applying various methods. After this, the data and information is being collected, keeping the subject to be authenticated of the whole research. The limitations standards are involved in the project. At first, the whole research is being conducted by students. Therefore, the access to the libraries and the other forms of resources couldn’t be accessed. Hence the research has been accomplished with the consultation of the limited number of secondary forms of resources that are available. Since the research has been conducted by a researcher, many of them do not rely upon the project and believe in it. The researchers were not entertained to conduct the research and analyse the data based on the questionnaire. Therefore, for the successful conduction of the questionnaire, higher efforts need to be put in to convince them. After all this, the crucial facts couldn’t be gathered.

Apart from this, the researcher had a short period to analyse the findings. It is being expected that if a longer time is being provided, the information and documents could be assumed properly. Therefore, the researcher has been bound for completing the projects to collect the prevalent data from only a limited number of people. Besides that, money also stands to be a huge factor in this case. The researcher does not possess a sufficient amount of money for continuing the research through longer times. Hence keeping all the limitations aside while conducting the research, the limitations have provided opportunities and success for the researchers in the future.

5.4 The future scope for the research

After the analysis of the research, it was observed that any interested researcher could continue with the whole project and could also conduct the whole project based on this research. The project was being conducted based on the responses for a definite section. Therefore, the researchers of the project should choose and also observe differences in their results. However, the future researcher should allow a sufficient (Geraldes et. al. 2022) amount of money for the research to be conducted. The results of the research could be variable from each other. The project is considered to be efficient for the continuous generations of power but the issues observed in the quality power could also affect the performance and generation of the overall project.

The issues that may arise due to poor quality are the voltage sag, the swells observed in the voltage, harmonic problems, the transients that are mainly responsible for reducing the power generation quality from the energies of solar and wind. More power has been used in the electronic type of device which also puts certain impacts on the outputs in the form of energy that leads to certain fluctuations. To overcome all these issues, it has been recommended for using the techniques including implementing the compensators (Ebrahim et. al. 2022) in static forms, series type of the LC filters UPQC. DSTATCOM is required for eliminating the harmonic section, the factor of power correction, and also helps in balancing the overall load. To offer stability, STATCOM is being recommended. Advanced methods need to be used for recording the data of the wind as well as the solar energy. It is done to estimate (Vishwakarma et. al. 2022) the power that needs to be calculated for the energy supply continuously. The different MPPT techniques are being used to track the resources.

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