Question no: 01:

Case Study & Question:

a)      Evolving Role of Cloud Computing within Modern Day Organizations:

The role of cloud computing is constantly evolving, and it is now an integral part of many modern organizations. Organizations are increasingly turning to cloud computing for its flexibility and scalability. As the use of cloud computing grows, so does the need for skilled professionals who can manage and optimize these complex systems.

ISP 1.0:

In the early days of cloud computing, organizations used the “pay-as-you-go” model offered by public cloud providers such as Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform (GCP). This model was particularly appealing to startups and small businesses that did not have the capital to invest in their data centers. First, public clouds were often less reliable than private data centers, leading to outages and downtime. Second, public clouds were more expensive than private data centers, due to the need to pay for computing sources on an hourly basis (Vithavathil, 2018). Finally, public clouds lacked the security and compliance features that many enterprises required.

ISP 2.0:

As cloud computing became more popular, service providers began offering more advanced services such as database as a service (DBaaS), monitoring as a service (MaaS), and backup as a service (BaaS). These new services allowed organizations to outsource even more of their IT operations to the cloud, freeing up time and resources that could be used for other purposes (Zalisham & Jali, 2021).


(Colo) ISP 3.0:

The third generation of Colo ISP providers, known as Colo ISP 3.0, is now beginning to emerge. These providers are differentiated by their ability to provide a complete suite of infrastructure as a service offering, including storage, networking, and computing. In addition, they are also able to offer advanced services such as data analytics and machine learning. This allows organizations to outsource all of their IT operations to the cloud, freeing up time and resources that can be used for other purposes (Tahrizchi & Kuchaki, 2020).


(ASP) ISP 4.0:

An Application Service Provider, also known as an ASP, is a type of service provider that offers services related to applications. ASPs allow users to access and use software applications from a central location, usually over the Internet. For example, a school may contract with an ASP to provide students with access to Microsoft Office or Adobe Photoshop. In return for providing the application, the ASP will typically charge a fee (Kamal, et al., 2020). ISP 4.0 providers offer many of the same services as their predecessors, but they tend to be more specialized in their offerings.


IaaS is an infrastructure as a service that provides users with access to computing resources, such as servers, storage, and networking. IaaS allows users to rent these resources on-demand, without having to purchase or manage them themselves.


(Cloud) ISP 5.0:

The next generation of cloud-based Internet service providers (ISPs) is upon us, and there are some exciting new features to look forward to. Cloud ISP 5.0 promises faster speeds, more reliable service, and more flexible pricing options (Kamal, et al., 2020).



PaaS is a platform as a service that provides a platform for developers to build applications. It is a complete environment that developers can use to create, test, and deploy their applications.


SaaS is a software as a service that delivers software over the internet. SaaS allows users to access and use the software from any location, without having to install it on their computers.

b)     Key Benefits gained by Amazon after adopting Cloud Computing:

Clouds have been slowly gathering on the technological horizon for some time now, but in the past few years, they have finally begun to break through. This is in no small part due to the efforts of organizations like Amazon, which have been at the forefront of cloud adoption.


Unlike in traditional data centers, where companies have to pay for the infrastructure up front and then maintain it, cloud computing allows companies to only pay for what they use. With Amazon’s pay-per-use model, customers only need to pay for the resources that they consume, making it a very cost-effective way of storing and processing data.



Cloud computing is also very flexible as it allows organizations to scale up or down their usage according to their needs. This means that during busy periods, organizations can quickly increase their capacity without having to make any long-term commitments. Similarly, during quieter periods, they can reduce their usage and save on costs.


Another key benefit of cloud computing is its efficiency. By moving to the cloud, organizations can free up valuable IT resources which can be used elsewhere within the business. Furthermore, by using cloud services, businesses can improve their processes and become more efficient overall (Tahrizchi & Kuchaki, 2020). For example, Amazon has been able to use its vast Amazon Web Services (AWS) platform to become an extremely efficient organization. This is one reason the company can offer cheap services, such as its Prime Video and Amazon Music streaming platforms.


Another key benefit of cloud computing is that it makes it easy for organizations to share information and work collaboratively in real-time. By using cloud-based applications, teams can communicate and collaborate on projects from anywhere in the world. Furthermore, because data is stored centrally on the cloud, users can easily access it whenever they need to – whether this is from a laptop, desktop computer, or mobile device.

Question no: 02:

Security and Privacy:

Three Security Requirements:

1.      Two-factor authentication for all user accounts:

Two-factor authentication is a process of confirming a user's identity by using two different independent factors. These two factors could be something that the user knows, like a password, and something that the user has, like a physical token. Two-factor authentication is often used as an extra layer of security on top of a single-factor authentication process. Implementing two-factor authentication for all user accounts in an organization can help to meet security requirements. However, it is important to consider the potential risks and challenges associated with two-factor authentication before implementing it (Sunvaev, 2020).

1.1  How Two-Factor Authentication Works:

When a user attempts to log in to an account or system, they will be prompted to enter both their password and the second piece of information. This second factor is typically something that only the user has access to, such as a code sent to their phone via text message or an app on their phone. The user enters this second factor, and if it matches what the system expects, the user is logged in. Two-factor authentication can be used for any type of login, including email, social media, and financial accounts. It can also be used for physical access control, such as entering a building or accessing a computer system.


1.2 Benefits of Two-Factor Authentication:

One of the biggest benefits of two-factor authentication is that it makes it much harder for attackers to gain access to accounts or systems. Even if an attacker knows a user's password, they will still need the second factor to log in. This effectively makes brute force attacks much more difficult, as the attacker would need to have access to the second factor as well as the password. Another benefit is that two-factor authentication can be used to provide an additional layer of security for high-value targets (Prieta, et al., 2019). For example, a company might require two-factor authentication for accessing their financial systems, but not for email or other less sensitive data. This allows them to protect their most sensitive data while still keeping the user experience simple. Finally, two-factor authentication can also help to improve audit trails and accountability. If an account is accessed using two-factor authentication, it is much easier to determine who accessed it and when. This can help investigate security incidents or breaches.

2.      Use Strong Passwords and Change Them Regularly:

In today's digital world, it's more important than ever to use strong passwords and to change them regularly. With so many online accounts, it can be tempting to use the same password for all of them. The use of strong passwords is a measure that helps to protect information systems from unauthorized access. Passwords are usually the first line of defense against attackers (Najjar, et al., 2022). A strong password is a password that is difficult to guess or crack by brute force methods. It should be at least 8 characters long and contain a mix of upper- and lower-case letters, numbers, and special characters. Passwords should also be changed regularly.


 How to create a strong password:

Here are some tips for creating strong passwords:

  1. Use a combination of letters, numbers, and symbols.
  2. Make your password at least eight characters long.
  3. Avoid using easily guessed words like "password" or your name.
  4. Use a different password for each of your online accounts.
  5. Change your passwords regularly.

3.      Secure Wireless Networks:

Organizations use wireless networks for a variety of purposes, including but not limited to data communication, VoIP, and video streaming. However, due to the potential for eavesdropping and other security threats, organizations need to implement secure wireless networks. In this blog post, we will discuss the security requirements for secure wireless networks and how they can be implemented using various technologies (Malta, et al., 2019). As the use of wireless networks has become more widespread, so needs security measures to protect them. Organizations that use wireless networks must take steps to ensure that their networks are secure. \


 Wireless network:

Organizations that use wireless networks must ensure that their networks are encrypted. Encryption is the process of transforming readable data into an unreadable format. This ensures that only authorized users can access the data. There are several encryption methods available, including WEP, WPA, and WPA2.

  1. WEP is the oldest and least secure of the three encryption methods. It is generally not recommended for use on wireless networks.
  2. WPA is a more secure encryption method than WEP. It uses TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) to improve security.
  3. WPA2 is the most secure of the three encryption methods. It uses AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) to encrypt data.

The framework used by Organizations for Security and Data control:

Organizations must take data security and control seriously to protect their information assets. One way to achieve this is by using a framework. A framework provides a structure for organizations to follow to ensure that their data is secure and controlled. It should be noted that there is no one-size-fits-all solution when it comes to data security and control and that the most appropriate framework for an organization will depend on its specific needs and requirements (Landoni, et al., 2018).

There are several different frameworks that organizations can choose from, such as the ISO 27001 standard or the NIST Cybersecurity Framework.

ISO 27001:

The ISO 27001 standard provides a framework for businesses to follow to secure their data. The standard is designed to help businesses manage the risks associated with their data, and it guides how to implement security controls to protect data from unauthorized access and misuse. The ISO 27001 standard is based on the principles of risk management. It requires businesses to identify, assess, and mitigate the risks associated with their data (Landoni, et al., 2018). The goal of the standard is to help businesses protect their data from unlawfully being accessed or used.

NIST Cybersecurity:

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a federal agency that promotes the use of science and technology to improve the economy and promote national security. One of the ways NIST does this is by developing standards and guidelines for businesses to use to protect themselves from cyberattacks (Kahvaoglu & Calivurt, 2018). The NIST Cybersecurity Framework is a set of standards and guidelines that businesses can use to improve their cybersecurity posture. The Framework is voluntary, but it is becoming increasingly common for businesses to adopt it, especially in industries where regulation requires it.

Question no: 03.

Telecommunication and Spreadsheet:

a)      Key Networking Infrastructure of Amazon:

“Amazon” is our selected organization for evaluating the networking infrastructure that is used by it in performing its day-to-day operations. To understand the networking infrastructure of Amazon, it is first necessary to understand the company's business model. Amazon is a global e-commerce company that sells products and services online. The company operates in three main segments: North America, Europe, and Asia-Pacific. In each of these segments, Amazon has several fulfillment centers that store and ship products to customers. In addition, the company has several data centers that host its website and store customer data (Gupta, et al., 2021).

The networking infrastructure that Amazon uses must be able to support the company's global operations. The data center network must be able to connect Amazon's servers to the Internet. The company's e-commerce platform must be able to connect customers with the company's servers. In addition, Amazon uses several third-party services that require network connectivity.

Amazon has several data centers around the world, including:

  1. Ashburn, Virginia (US East Region)
  2. Dublin, Ireland (Europe West Region)
  3. Frankfurt, Germany (Europe Central Region)
  4. Hayward, California (US West Region)
  5. Hong Kong SAR of China (Asia Pacific Region)

Amazon's physical infrastructure is among the most complex and expansive in the world. The company owns and operates a vast network of data centers, which are located across the globe in a variety of locations (Gao & Sunvaev, 2019). Amazon also owns a large fleet of trucks and ships that transport goods to and from its warehouses. Amazon's use of cloud services is also critical to its business operations. The company offers a variety of cloud-based services, including storage, computing, and networking. These services enable Amazon to scale its operations quickly and efficiently.

Amazon's data center operations are also integral to its business model. The company maintains a large number of data centers around the world, which house its servers and other computer equipment. Amazon has invested heavily in data center security, and its data centers are some of the most secure in the world. In addition to its e-commerce and cloud computing businesses, Amazon also operates several other businesses (Galiveeti, et al., 2021). These include Amazon Web Services (AWS), which provides cloud-based services to businesses and organizations; Amazon Prime, a subscription service that offers free shipping and other benefits to members; and Amazon Studios, a film and television production company.

b)     Sales Department of AllTech Group:

i)                    Find Mean, Median, Max, and Min:

The total forecasted revenue generated by the AllTech Group in 2021 from all seven countries amounts to $835,000. The mean value is $119,286, while the median value is $113,000. The maximum value is generated by the UAE at $215,000, while the minimum value is generated by Nigeria at $38,000.

Total: The formula for finding the “Total” value using excel is as follows;

=Sum (number 1, number . . .)

So, according to the given data, select =Sum (then select data range, which is from G6 to G12. So, here is our using formula; =Sum (G6:G12). The answer is $835,000.

Mean: The formula for finding the “Mean” value using excel is as follows:

=Average (number 1, number . . .)

So, according to the given data, select =Average (then select data range, which is from G6 to G12. So, here is our using formula; =Average (G6:G12). The answer is $119,286.

Median: The formula for finding the “Median” value using excel is as follows:

=Median (number 1, number . . .)

So, according to the given data, select =Median (then select data range, which is from G6 to G12. So, here is our using formula; =Median (G6:G12). The answer is $113,000.

Maximum: The formula for finding the “Median” value using excel is as follows:

=Max (number 1, number . . .)

So, according to the given data, select =Max (then select the data range, which is from G6 to G12. So, here is our using formula; =Max (G6:G12). The answer is $215,000.

Minimum: The formula for finding the “Median” value using excel is as follows:

=Min (number 1, number . . .)

So, according to the given data, select =Min (then select data range, which is from G6 to G12. So, here is our using formula; =Min (G6:G12). The answer is $38,000.


ii)                  Number of countries during Q2 with a forecast of more than £27,000.

The Alltech Group's recent successes in Canada, Singapore, and the UAE can be attributed to its focus on quality and customer satisfaction. The company has had to face and overcome different challenges in each country, but its commitment to excellence has paid off. The Alltech Group is a multinational company with a strong presence in different countries, but it generates more than $27,000 in Canada, Singapore, UAE, and Germany.


Al Najjar, M.T., Al Shobaki, M.J. and El Talla, S.A., 2022. Supporting Senior Management and the Readiness of the Organizational Structure in Palestinian Charitable Institutions to Adopt and Implement Cloud Computing. International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR), 6(3), pp.1-17.

De la Prieta, F., Rodríguez-González, S., Chamoso, P., Corchado, J.M. and Bajo, J., 2019. Survey of agent-based cloud computing applications. Future generation computer systems, 100, pp.223-236.

Gao, F. and Sunyaev, A., 2019. Context matters: A review of the determinant factors in the decision to adopt cloud computing in healthcare. International Journal of Information Management, 48, pp.120-138.

Galiveeti, S., Tawalbeh, L.A., Tawalbeh, M. and El-Latif, A.A.A., 2021. Cybersecurity analysis: Investigating the data integrity and privacy in AWS and azure cloud platforms. In Artificial Intelligence and Blockchain for Future Cybersecurity Applications (pp. 329-360). Springer, Cham.

Gupta, B., Mittal, P. and Mufti, T., 2021. A review on Amazon web service (AWS), Microsoft azure & Google cloud platform (GCP) services.

Kahyaoglu, S.B. and Caliyurt, K., 2018. Cyber security assurance process from the internal audit perspective. Managerial Auditing Journal.

Kamal, M.A., Raza, H.W., Alam, M.M. and Mohd, M., 2020. Highlight the features of AWS, GCP, and Microsoft Azure that have an impact when choosing a cloud service provider. Int. J. Recent Technol. Eng, 8(5), pp.4124-4232.

Landoni, M., Genoni, M., Riva, M., Bianco, A. and Corina, A., 2018, July. Application of cloud computing in astrophysics: the case of Amazon Web Services. In Software and Cyberinfrastructure for Astronomy V (Vol. 10707, pp. 101-109). SPIE.

Malta, E.M., Avila, S., and Borin, E., 2019, December. Exploring the cost-benefit of AWS ec2 GPU instances for deep learning applications. In Proceedings of the 12th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing (pp. 21-29).

Sunyaev, A., 2020. Cloud computing. In Internet computing (pp. 195-236). Springer, Cham.

Tabrizchi, H. and Kuchaki Rafsanjani, M., 2020. A survey on security challenges in cloud computing: issues, threats, and solutions. The journal of supercomputing, 76(12), pp.9493-9532.

Vithayathil, J., 2018. Will cloud computing make the information technology (IT) department obsolete?. Information Systems Journal, 28(4), pp.634-649.

Zalisham, F.A.B.H.A. and Jali, M.N.B.N., 2021. Preliminary Study On It Security Maintenance Management In Malaysia Organizations. PalArch's Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology, 18(1), pp.4061-4073.


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