Total Quality Management

Total quality management (TQM) is an approach of management for a longterm success along with satisfaction of customer. In this approach every member of an organization play an important role in improvement of products, processes, culture and services of their work place (ASQ, 2020). It is a management system for such an organization which is much concerned about its customers. The sources total quality management (TQM) utilizes are some strategies, communication skills and data to assimilate discipline and quality in the activities and culture of an organization. Modern quality management system which came after total quality management (TQM) utilizes some concepts of it. Total quality management (TQM) works on 8 well known principles which are (Westcott, 2013);

  1. They pay much focus to their customers, as customers determines the quality. It is not a matter of consideration that what our considered company which is Shell is doing but it has to train its employees, impart quality into their process’ design and computers or software up gradation. Already they have better plan for customer focus like dealing with disabled person first and then rest of the customer (ASQ, 2020).
  2. They ensure participation of each and every employees towards common goal. For better participation of employee they insure no fear would be there in the workplace with work systems undergoing highperformance integrating efforts to improve Such system must have selfmanaged teams. Shell where I work, also has very contributing and managed team in the work place.
  3. Focusing the process is a fundamental part of total quality management (TQM). It contains steps to improve inputs (internal or external) and outputs with some monitored detection to ensure no variation in the process. For this Shell has regular visits of the shell manager as well as arrival of Mystery shoppers and Territory Managers in every 2 months interval for inspection of the store (ASQ, 2020).
  4. Different functional specialties in differently structured departments in the form of horizontal processes incorporation TQM functions. These processes includes Microprocesses along with integrated business system to improve continuously and fulfill expectations of employees, stakeholders and customers.
  5. Serious part of management is strategic planning along with strategic management to accomplish vision of the organization. Shell also has morning evening and night shifting with routine checkup and inspection at end of every shift (ASQ, 2020).
  6. They are more likely to improvement drives which are operated continually to ensure fulfill expectations of employees, stakeholders and customers.
  7. Total quality management (TQM) is an approach of management which ensure decision making process to be based on facts with a continual improvement in them.
  8. Total quality management (TQM) ensures effective communications as they believe that effective communications can allow employees to best involve in the process and gave it his best (ASQ, 2020).

For every situation or culture of workplace there is not a possibility to have same solution so keeping this in mind we have to formulate a total quality management system or quality management (ASQ, 2020).

Six Sigma Quality Management

Six Sigma is an approach of managing quality to ensure improvement in products, services and current processes of the business by proper discovery and elimination of defects and variations. Streamlining the process of quality control in product manufacturing or processes of business to ensure no or least allowed possibility of variance throughout the process. This management approach is a Motorola trademark developed in 1993.

The process is named so because it ensures 99.99966 percent environment free of defects. Motorola did this step to stream line its own manufacturing processes, but soon they gained so much importance worldwide that it became a standard which is widely adopted very quickly (White, 2018). The important goal of Six Sigma quality management is to determine the defective parts and processes that are causing variations in overall quality of product or process and eliminate these defects. This could be achieved by defining the steps around your target in such terms;

  1. Smaller is considered to be better as it defines some limits for upper specification and zero for rejected or defected parts
  2. Larger is considered to be better as it defines some limits for lower specification and the target is 100 percent.
  3. Nominal is considered to be better as it focuses at the middle portion of the specification

This process has a goal to mesh the statistics and data to provide better identification of defects and errors which generate negative impact on quality. This quality management approach is meant for variety of business to fit into their culture and goals and this management approach also enables organizations in defining their objectives and needs.

This quality management approach is processed by using two methodologies consisting of five phases denoted by two acronym DMAIC and DMADV every letter has some detailed meaning. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) is another name used for DMADV. These include:

  1. Definemeans to define every aspect of business including goals and customer’s expectations.
  2. Measure means to measure performance of the process both current and that has been done by data collection plan.
  3. Analyze means to analyze defect and reasons of it.
  4. Improve means to improve the process by removing defects.
  5. Control means to  avoid falling into old habits

DMAIC can be given as:

  1. Definemeans to define realistic goals for business strategy.
  2. Measure means to measure customer’s critical to quality (CTQ) requirements and achieve goals accordingly.
  3. Analyze means to analyze alternatives and multiple options for the customers.
  4. Design means to design the process at high level to its comparatively detailed version by identifying defects.
  5. Verify means to verify concluding repetition of your product or process

Both the methodologies DMAIC and DMADV are somewhat similar, but they do possess certain dissimilarities like the DMAIC is used for current or going on process or products which are unable to meet customers’ needs while DMADV is use when a new product or process development is intended to be done in a business (White, 2018).

Comparison between Total Quality Management and Six Sigma Quality Management

Both the methods of quality management, Six Sigma and Total Quality Management
(TQM) are meant to examine products’ or process’ quality. While Total Quality Management
TQM is quantitative methods which ensure quality of methods and resources in order to have improved quality in all the processes performed by the organization. Six Sigma basically an approach which is a problem solving approach the in which there is a reduction in main problem or defect and limit the occurrence of variation in the management.

Both of these approaches aim in reducing the number of defects (PV, 2019). Another study also showed that both possess has a difference which can be stated as Total quality management (TQM) is a continual process while Six Sigma is a problem solving approach (BARONE, 2020). Another difference among them is Total Quality Management focus on internal guidelines to reduce errors while Six Sigma reduces defects (BARONE, 2020)

Integration of Total Quality Management and Six Sigma Quality Management and their Productive Effect on SHELL

Both the approaches of quality management, Total Quality Management (TQM) and Six Sigma are important at different scenarios to meet the objectives of organizations. They both are not actually exclusive to meet the objectives of organizations but compatible for several businesses. The best strategy to be found is to identify the relationship between Six Sigma and Total Quality Management TQM to improve business quality (Yang, 2011). Six Sigma is also not an efficient mode here to achieve objective as it is considered to be used in large organizations and is not considered realistic for businesses having less than 500 employees.

In our case of Shell we have comparatively less number of employees (White, 2018). Some other cautious point for Six Sigma is while it keeps focus on improving existing things world pivots around innovative ideas and new technology. Moreover the problem solving approach that is Six Sigma is more focused one and has more potential in the scenario of Shell as Total Quality Management (TQM) is not sufficiently working or the more better option is to merge both for the better achievement of the objective that is reduction of errors (PV, 2019).

From the last two decades interest towards Total Quality Management (TQM) has not very much seen and they are being cancelled by several firms because they generate negative impact on profits. Other factors are also there which contribute to this failure. Many firms have shifted to adding both the processes because they encountered that adding a Six Sigma program to their current business system reduces drawbacks of TQM program (Yang, 2011) and mixing it with TQM removes the drawbacks of Six Sigma (P.CavanachR., 2000).


  1. ASQ, 2020. [Online]
    Available at:
    [Accessed 12 April 2020].
  2. BARONE, A., 2020. Total Quality Management (TQM). Investopedia, 29 January.
  3. CavanachR., P. S., 2000. TheSix.SigmaWay. New York: McGrawHill.
  4. PV, R., 2019. Total Quality Management and Six Sigma. Six Sigma Study, January.
  6. White, S. K., 2018. What is Six Sigma? Streamlining quality management. CIO, 12 June.
  7. Yang, C.C., 2011. The Integration of TQM and SixSigma. com/books.

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