This assignment I based upon the application of a qualitative analysis to a current business concept and the chosen article for this analysis is “Entrepreneurial selfefficacy: A systematic review of the literature on its theoretical foundations, measurement, antecedents, and outcomes, and an agenda for future research” by Alexander Newmana , Martin Obschonkab, Susan Schwarzc, Michael Cohena, Ingrid Nielsena.

Stage OneQualitative Literature

With reference to a selected portion of the paper, this section gives an overview of the relevant qualitative literature. In light of these considerations, a 20minute interview is held to determine eligibility for the remaining duties. Factors that may aid or hinder the progression of ESE have been the subject of an expanding amount of research (Wei, et al., 2020). This kind of research not only shows how easily ESE may be shaped, but also underscores the need of interventions that motivate individuals to develop and practice entrepreneurship.

Key antecedents of ESE are discussed in the following chapters. These antecedents include work experience, education, role models, mentors, individual differences, corporate features, and cultural and institutional environment. Most research on the causes of ESE has turned to social cognitive theories for explanations of the factors that lead to the emergence of ESE. Some examples of these processes include direct learning, indirect learning, social influence, and selfreflection on ones own physiological condition (the affective route).

Previous job or leadership experience is one aspect shown to encourage ESE. Contrary to popular belief, family company owners ESE is not correlated with the number of years they have spent working in the industry, but rather with the quality of their job experience within the industry. Among middle and high school students, Elitha and Purba, (2020) looked at the impact of leadership and job experience on ESE. They discovered that although there was a strong link between leadership experience and ESE, this was only the case for high school guys.

Business plans and scientific experiments are two examples of activities that get students involved in their own education (Wei, et al., 2020). Coaching may supplement or even replace the traditional method of learning by emulating an established role model. When guiding and critiquing students research, business instructors frequently rely on students social beliefs to boost their ESE. Growing research suggests a correlation between exposures to good role models and enhanced social and emotional development (ESE), in line with the predictions of social theory. Furthermore, role models are a terrific way to get social proof, which boosts ones confidence and encourages them to pursue their own entrepreneurial endeavors.

Many researchers believe that a persons gender is a contributing factor to their ESE. Some studies have reported that women have higher levels of ESE than men, while others have found no significant gender differences in ESE, and overall the data from the studies that make up the larger Global Employment Management (GEM) project suggests that women have lower levels of ESE than men (Elitha and Purba, 2020). This may be due to a lack of exposure to and participation in entrepreneurial activities. Furthermore, the mean value of ESE is mild, and studies evaluating the moderating role of gender in the correlation between occupational training and employment history have yielded contradictory findings.

Stage TwoInterview Conduction  

This qualitative study employs indepth interviews to examine the social dynamics of firstyear college students as they navigate their university careers, with an eye toward gaining insight into their views on the value of taking part in entrepreneurial programming and on the processes by which they build their own sense of competence about a future professional option. I conducted semistructured interviews with a sufficient sample size to finish this investigation. When adding more people doesnt provide any fresh knowledge, weve achieved saturation (Hantash & Van Belkum, 2016).

Although they came from different backgrounds (in terms of gender, area of study, and years spent in school), all workers in this research participated in at least one entrepreneurial program or event. On the guidance of professionals, I used a semistructured interview process to choose participants based on their involvement in the chosen courses and cocurricular (Wei, et al., 2020a. In light of this, a qualitative, semistructured interview study design was used for this investigation. Because it is a simple voice recorder, Microsoft Dictate was utilized to capture interviews.

This research used semistructured interviews and observation to get its data. I performed the interview according to the procedure in Appendix A, which contains, in addition to the questions asked, general principles to be followed throughout the interview. This technique is based on the scheme, given by Farhangmehr et al. (2016) explored determinants of entrepreneurial motivation among university students using mixed methods and modified from features of personal entrepreneurship. Questions concerning participants eligibility and demographics were left out of the design in favor of a more indepth participant survey.

Instead, it goes straight to the subject of the third key question about selfefficacy (experience of skills, employee behavior, and social quality) and how they impact the perceived effectiveness of the entrepreneurial body in the development of the entrepreneurial future target. When I found people who met the criteria, I offered them to participate in oneonone interviews and gave them a permission form explaining the studys purpose. After participants finished the survey, I interviewed them briefly to explain the purpose of the research. If the chosen participants indicated interest, I sent them an email invitation and arranged an interview. I also verified via email the interviews time and date (with time zone information, if relevant) and the Zoom link we used to conduct the interview.

Stage ThreeAnalysis of the Interview  

Here, the finished interviews are analyzed qualitatively. After the first phase of summarizing, I proceeded with the data process, the code and themes uncovered, and the pictures made, following the qualitative data analysis approach given by Hays and Singh (2012). All of the interviews were recorded by the Reverends staff and transcribed verbatim; I listened to the recordings and read them aloud while writing this piece.

After that, I started the data analysis code. NVivo 12 Plus, a program for analyzing qualitative data, should be used to finish the code. NVivo allows me to import all of the transcripts, set up individual cases for each participant, and then use the code and word transcripts to start identifying patterns and relationships. NVivo also allows users to organize and save search queries, as well as do keyword searches on employment paperwork and interview transcripts.

Coding Strategy

According to one research, code adds information to the text (rather than subtracting it from the text) through a process of interpretation, which concurrently separates the text into meaningful chunks or sections (p. 33). I utilized value codes (primary codes) and structure codes (secondary codes) to analyses the data and answer the study question (secondary).

Values coding

In line with the social constructionist tenets upon which this research was conducted, I used value coding as the major coding approach in order to permit the formation of participants values, ideas, and views that constitute their viewpoint or worldview (Elitha and Purba, 2020). Suitable coding values exist for research like this one, which probe the identities and life experiences of the participants (Saldaa, 2013).

Value coding, in contrast to construct coding, takes its form according to the values, beliefs, and views given by respondents. During transcript analysis for assigning grade codes, I seek for the terms Important that, I like, I like, and I like to serve as a warning, as proposed by Saldaa (2013) whether or whether those taking part regard (p. 113).

Structural coding

Next, I use structural coding, my second coding method. Data collected through semistructured interviews was especially valuable for the use of structural coding (Saldaa, 2013) in order to locate and analyses materials pertinent to certain issues. Both textual and visual coding systems begin with an encoding and categorization phase, during which similarities, distinctions, and linkages are established (Saldaa, 2013).

The structural factors used to analyses the obtained data, which include the six aspects of entrepreneurial selfefficacy. The appropriate structural model was then applied to each set of interview questions. When compared to quantitative coding, structural coding is easier since it does not need as much interpretation of the participants meanings and opinions (Elitha and Purba, 2020). My findings, however, show that the participants ratings and the coding structures inclusion of predictors of selfefficacy are very consistent, indicating that the latter are essential and relevant to the former.

Identifying Themes and Patterns

Themes and patterns emerged when I coded the interviews for construct and value codes. According to Saldaa (2013), a code is an extended sentence or phrase that describes what a unit of data is and/or what it implies, whereas a theme is the product of coding. The process of theme formation the data led me to start seeing how the many pieces of the conceptual framework, which had previously seemed disconnected, fit together. Undergraduates perceptions of the value of ESE, the impact of ESE on their feeling of meaningful selfefficacy as an entrepreneur, and the relevance of their ESE development to their future entrepreneurial goals are all interconnected (Elitha and Purba, 2020).

Recognizing that themes may be discovered not only in what is stated, but also in what is not said, I used basic categorization to examine the similarities and differences among the identified themes and any recurring patterns between them. To show this, we looked at how participants said a certain predictor of selfefficacy was linked to other components of entrepreneurial selfefficacy and then examined whether or not these links were represented in course material or extracurricular activities. To learn more about the topic identification codebook, please refer to Appendix B.

Stage Four: Reflective

Keeping a reflective notebook requires me to continue to check for subjectivity and prejudice while also writing my views about how the study will affect me. The relevance of this process may be attributed to the different periods throughout the study process in which researchers must examine how researchers impact participants, data collecting, and data analysis personally or professionally (Wei, et al., 2020). I incorporated the replies from the participants, my intuitions about the new discoveries, and some recommendations for future selfmodification in these handwritten notes.

It is essential, while recruiting participants for a research project, to find reactions that are pertinent to the research process and to respond to the participants desire for validation. In order to accomplish this objective, member checking was used. According to Hays and Singh (2012), page 206, member checking is described as ongoing dialogue with participants to assess the goodness of fit of the result development, and it entails involving participants in the research process in order to authentically portray their thoughts and emotions.

In order to accomplish this, I used a method that involved giving participants the opportunity to read notes that provided a summary of previous occurrences. This was done to ensure that they were faithfully presenting their voices and emotions, and it was accompanied by a process in which I asked followup questions via email in order to generate responses related to developing. Because protecting the participants anonymity, privacy, and confidentiality is of the utmost importance, every effort is taken to guarantee that individuals are selected at random throughout the research. Before starting to collect data, participants were given information about any possible dangers, and participation on a voluntary basis was strongly encouraged.

The investigations physical data files are kept secure in locked filing cabinets, while the investigations electronic data files are kept secure on servers that need a password to access (Wei, et al., 2020). The researchers and members of the research organization that are taking part in the study are the only people who have access to the data that was gathered. When I write about participants and their experiences, I make sure to safeguard the participants by making up tales about the people around me and concealing any identifying information or situations that may lead to the participants identity being revealed.


Elitha, C. and Purba, D.E., 2020. Entrepreneurial SelfEfficacy and Entrepreneurial Intention: The Mediating Role of Entrepreneurship Intentional SelfRegulation among Future Entrepreneurs. Journal of Economics, Business, & Accountancy Ventura23(2), pp.149159.

Farhangmehr, M., Gonçalves, P. and Sarmento, M., 2016. Predicting entrepreneurial motivation among university students: The role of entrepreneurship education. Education+ Training.

Hantash, D.A. and Van Belkum, C., 2016. Lived Experiences of Female Undergraduate Students, at a Nursing College in Abu Dhabi, about Nursing as a Profession. Journal of Education and Practice7(4), pp.5969.

Hays, D.G. and Singh, A.A., 2011. Qualitative inquiry in clinical and educational settings. Guilford Press.

Kurfist, A., 2019. Building Entrepreneurial SelfEfficacy (ESE): How Undergraduate Students Make Meaning of Their Entrepreneurial Experiences (Doctoral dissertation, Old Dominion University).

Newman, A., Obschonka, M., Schwarz, S., Cohen, M. and Nielsen, I., 2019. Entrepreneurial selfefficacy: A systematic review of the literature on its theoretical foundations, measurement, antecedents, and outcomes, and an agenda for future research. Journal of vocational behavior110, pp.403419.

Saldaña, J., 2021. The coding manual for qualitative researchers. The coding manual for qualitative researchers, pp.1440.

Wei, J., Chen, Y., Zhang, Y. and Zhang, J., 2020. How does entrepreneurial selfefficacy influence innovation behavior? Exploring the mechanism of job satisfaction and Zhongyong thinking. Frontiers in Psychology11, p.708.

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