In the case study of Mr. Khan, he was admitted unconsciously in the hospital as he is having sustained Myocardial infarction. He is requiring the end of life care. Myocardial infarction is a disease related to the pain in chest and is considered as a feared acquaintance of the current civilization. The thrombosis of coronary artery and the myocardial infarction creep around the corner striking friends, patients, strangers, and ourselves. The count taken by this dreaded disease in several hospitals exceeds from occurrence of all other diseases altogether (Biorl, 2020).

Clinical Case Study

1.Biological factor

In MI, there is an irreversible impairment to the heart muscle due to a deficiency in supply of oxygen. This may lead to diminishing systolic and diastolic function which make patient susceptible to arrhythmias (Grossman, 2019). Obesity, abnormalities in lipids, diabetes smoking, and increased blood pressure are key risk factors for CHD. In the case of Mr. Khan, he is also a sufferer of obesity along with abnormal diet condition which entails higher cholesterol consumption that leads to cardiac artery chocking which leads to MI. In males, the consequences of heart attack are more prevalent than female that is why Mr. Khan gets serious effects than her wife. These consequences may occur in their grandchildren which are causing stress to Mrs. Khan, as there is genetic transference of the disease.

2. Social factor

            Specifically, these factors include the conditions which determine the area in which people are born, live and work. One of the disadvantage of Mr. Khan is an enhanced exposure to risk factors which are some lifestyle conditions that played important role in which diet is at no. one cause that led him and her wife to this worst condition. These conditions inhibit Mr. Khan and his wife to have a quality family time. This also prevents them to enjoy different family gatherings and events due to progressive deteriorating condition.

3.  Psychological factor

The psychological factor like depression, stress, and anxiety also impact patients with heart problems. In Mr. Khan’s case, no such scenario is found but he might be a sufferer of stress which led him to MI. also anxiety would be there with such conditions which will deteriorate his conditions.

If Mr. Khan recovered, then after the recovery he and her wife will stick to healthy diet along with proper exercise and some physical activity, they will soon be able to decrease the severe consequences. Along with such measures, medical treatment is also recommended for both individuals to speed the recovery process. However, as the case suspects that he is about to die so her family will be in traumatic situation and might be her wife will suffer stress and depression will further worsen the condition.

Role of Nurses

1.Legal Considerations

The legal considerations in nursing generate a deep impact on the way of delivery of care by the nurses and other health staff to the patients. Such concerns form the environment suitable for practicing nursing and determining the methods of documentation as well as their retention or sharing. In this scenario of Mr. Khan the protection of patient’s confidentiality, have to follow these rules and laws which were followed in an acceptable manner.

Data protection Act 2018

General Data Protection Regulation GDPR is a new concept started around two years back in Europe. It is more efficient than previous rule of data Protection Act 1998 (Spencer A, 2019). This act outlines that how nurses ensure the protection of personal data of Mr. Khan.

Human Rights Act

The human right act of 1999 sets some series of articles which are intended to be performed by everyone in the UK. The aspects which are linked to this case study are rights of a patient that must be followed by nurses (Equality and Human Rights Commission, 2018). The measures followed to recover Mr. Khan through diet and prevent his wife from leading to such consequences were also been guided through this act..

2.Professional Considerations

Nurses must undergo possible efforts to manage the recovery of Mr. Khan from death bed and to communicate effectively the possible measures with other healthcare staff to ensure the recovery of patient.

3.Ethical Considerations

Autonomy simply means the authority to take individual decisions. Nurses must be eligible and confident enough to manage deteriorating effect at their end. Apart from autonomy, justice is also adds so much value to nursing profession. The nursing staff must be fair enough towards the patient and no negligence would be there as the patient is of critical care so negligence would lead to maleficence. It is a great practice of nurses to work according to concept of non maleficence and beneficence (Rosenberg, 2019). Non maleficence means provision of no harm intentionally and avoidance of risk as well as if happened try to reduce the risk. Beneficence is the incorporation of good practices in healthcare. In the case of Mr. Khan the nurses and medical staff has already performed well.

Some theories are there which can develop an ethical environment among the healthcare providers which includes Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that classifies good with utility and the right that impart in maximization of the utility  (Keeling, 2016). According to utilitarianism, nurses and other members of care system must practice the provision of good quality care which they are also providing and must deal the upcoming incidence with great power as in case of Mr. Khan’s death.

Another theory is of Deontology states the ethics towards duty of professionals. This may include rights based ethics and value based ethics (Jharna Mandal, 2016). This theory inculcate that nurses must work on the provision of good care and also deals with the family members in good way to face the trauma of Mr. Khan’s death.

Breach of confidentiality:

Confidentiality is important to protect the compliance and comfort of patient and guarantee the society’s confidence upon the doctor and patient relationship. The respect of afore mentioned principles and theories ensures the protection of confidentiality (Cristina M. Beltran Aroca, 2016). One thing the nurses should take care while discussion is that of confidentiality which was not followed by them in this scenario. As the case was critical, so they missed the concept of confidentiality while discussing the case and treatments among health care professionals.

Professional standards of confidentiality NMC:

These are some conducts which are intended to be followed by the nurses and other associates whether they are involved in direct or indirect care. It entails treat people in a way that you protect their dignity; listen people, and respond to their concerns and preferences (Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2015); people’s social, physical, and emotional needs are properly answered; act according to people’s interest; respect their rights; etc. these must be fulfilled in this case as well by dealing with his wife’s concerns well. Nurses have to tell her about what she and her family should do for betterment in their lives.

4.Communication strategies used by the health care providers in given scenario

The communication strategies that are most commonly mentioned were those related to answering the queries about the disease or their treatment etc. Attitude, behaviors, and perceptions of individual greatly signify the efficacy of communication which is the leading cause for effective treatment and healthcare provision (Rosenstein, 2015). The wife of patient asks for her health as well because both of them were told years back the same precautions which they even not have followed. As she is tensed due to her husband’s condition and consequences her family has to face, so the healthcare providers must communicate in effective way and calm her down as well as support her to deal with the condition. In non verbal communication, healthcare providers comfort the family members.


These concentrated efforts described in this study help the patient like in this case and lead towards great success. At the same time, it helps Mr. Khan’s wife to deal with the worse condition she and her family faced and also provide an eye opening scenario to better their lifestyle.


  1. Biorl, G., 2020. The Biology of Myocardial Infaretion. AHA Journals.
  2. Cristina M. Beltran Aroca, c. a. E. G. L. E. C. C. M. M. P. B. a. M. C. M. V., 2016. Confidentiality breaches in clinical practice: what happens in hospitals?. BMC Med Ethics., 17(1), p. 52.
  3. Equality and Human Rights Commission, 2018. The Human Rights Act. Equality and Human Rights Commission, 15 Nov .
  4. Grossman, O. J. M. a. S. A., 2019. Acute Myocardial Infarction.
  5. Jharna Mandal, D. K. P. a. S. C. P., 2016. Utilitarian and deontological ethics in medicine. Trop Parasitol. , 6(1), p. 5–7..
  6. Keeling, O. B. a. M., 2016. Utilitarianism in Public Health. National Collaborating Centre for Healthy Public Policy.
  7. Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2015. The Code Professional standards of practice and behaviour for nurses, midwives and nursing associates. Nursing and Midwifery Council, 29 January.
  8. Rosenberg, S., 2019. Why Ethics in Nursing Matters. Southern New Hampshire University.
  9. Rosenstein, A. H., 2015. Communication Strategies in Healthcare: i to i vs. Eye to Eye: Best Strategies to Improve Communication in Healthcare”. California Association of Health Care Quality (CAHQ)., Volume 47, pp. 5 9.
  10. Spencer A, P. S., 2019. Applying the Data Protection Act 2018 and General Data Protection Regulation principles in healthcare settings.. Nursing Management. .

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