Human heart

Human heart consists of four chambers upper two atria and two lower ventricles.

There are bicuspid, tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral and aortic valves. These act as the joint between all the chambers of the heart, they are made up of thin but strong flaps of tissues called leaflets or cusps. These valves open and close to help blood move along its path. These ensure the one way flow of the blood. The tricuspid valve is located between the right atrium and the right ventricle. Pulmonary valve is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.  Marital valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle. Aortic valve commonly known as bicuspid valve brings oxygenated blood from your heart to the rest of the body.it is the largest blood vessel in the body.   

Heart is often described as a double pump as it pumps the blood in both the directions upward and downward. Heart pumps out the deoxygenated blood and pass it to the lungs to be purified. It also pumps the blood to pass oxygenated blood through arteries to all parts of the body.

Some parts of the heart are thicker than other parts. Both the ventricles are thicker and the left ventricle is thicker than the right ventricle as it has to pumps the blood further around the body and it is done against the highest pressure.

Cardiac muscle tissues are in voluntary, specialized and organized tissues only found in the heart. They keep the heart pumping and circulation of the blood throughout the body. The human heart is composed of three layers pericardium, myocardium and endocardium. Pericardium is the outer most layer of the heart. The endocardium is the thin lining covering the interior of the heart. The middle layer is the myocardium. It is the largest heart muscle and is responsible for most functioning of the heart.

The role of septum in the heart is that it separates all the chambers. It is present between the right and left atrium and known as articular septum as well as ventricular septum. It keeps the direction of the blood flow systematic.

There are two atrias and two ventricles in the heart. The functions of all the chambers of the heart are different. The both atrias received the de oxygenated blood from the whole body and then passed them to the both the ventricles through the bicuspid valves.

The pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins perform the opposite functions than that of other arteries and veins.

The veins carry the deoxygenated blood from throughout the body towards the heart. This deoxygenated blood then goes into the right atrium and then passed through the bicuspid valve into the right ventricle. Through the right ventricle, the de oxygenated blood is then transferred through the pulmonary artery into the lungs. In the lungs, the blood gets purified and the de oxygenated blood becomes oxygenated. The oxygenated blood then transferred through pulmonary vein into the left atrium. Through the left atrium the oxygenated blood passed into the left ventricle through the tricuspid valve. From the left ventricle, blood is transferred through arteries into different parts of the body.

The blood transports materials and oxygen through out the body and reaches every tissue and organ of the body.  The oxygen and dissolved materials are absorbed by the tissues where needed and the unwanted material is dissolved in the body.

Different veins and arteries perform specific functions in the body and the heart. There are different types of veins i.e. pulmonary vein, superior vena cava and inferior vena cava. There are also different types of arteries i.e. pulmonary artery and aorta. The pulmonary vein just performs the function opposite to other veins. Veins are specific for transferring de oxygenated blood while pulmonary vein is specific for transporting oxygenated blood back from lung to the heart. The pulmonary artery also performs function opposite to the other arteries, it transport the deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs to be purified. 

Task 4: Reflective Blood Pressure Report (AC 4.1)

Introduction:

                  Heart is the main circulatory organ in the body. The body passes through different forms of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Our body monitors blood pressure with the help of bio receptors. They are the nerve endings present in the walls of the blood vessels and the heart and they can sense the changes in arterial pressure. They are activated by the increase in the blood pressure and then tend to decrease the activity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. This will eventually decrease the blood pressure. This experiment was conducted to find out the effect of exercise on the blood pressure of two different persons. The pulse rate was also noted before, during and after the exercise of both the partners. Blood pressure was also noted before, during and after the exercise. Here a distinct and clear difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the pulse rate can be detected.

Step 2: Method

The blood pressure of both the persons was noted under the normal conditions. They were stress free and in healthy condition. The blood pressure was noted and also their pulse rate. Then they were supposed to take a walk for 15 minutes. The blood pressure and pulse rate was again checked soon after the walk and after sometime. After giving them rest for 15 minutes their BP and pulse rate was measured. Then they were let to hop for 15 minutes. After that their BP and pulse rate was again measured soon after the exercise and after giving them some rest. After half an hour of rest their essentials/ vitals were taken once again and they were supposed to run slowly for 15 minutes. The vitals were taken again soon after the running and after some time. There seems to be quite increase in both the pulse rate and BP soon after the gentle exercises but after some time it tends to be normal.    

Step 3: Present Your Information

Souda

At rest

Gentle exercise

After exercise

Pulse

99

151

112

Systolic

109

134

114

Diastolic

66

84

82

 

 

Nasra

At rest

Gentle exercise

After exercise

Pulse

81

127

92

Systolic

119

153

124

Diastolic

81

80

72

 

Name (of class partner)

Date/time

Blood Pressure measurement mm/Hg

 

 sauda

 

 

 

 

 

160522

1.      114/71

 98

 

2. 107/69

 102

 

3. 109/66

 99

Average:

110/69

100

 

 

 

 

 

Name (of class partner)

Date/time

Blood Pressure measurement mm/Hg

 

 nasra

 

 

 

 

160522

1.      119/67

 81

 

2. 117/67

 81

 

3. 115/67

 83

Average:

117/67

82

 

Results:

The following factors can temporarily affect blood pressure: stress; severe pain; recent exercise; smoking; caffeine. The class partner is of the same age and fitness level as of mine. He is also a male of the same physique as of mine. So the effect of gentle exercise was also the same and there was no such difference between the evaluations of the blood pressure between the both of us. 

 His blood pressure is of the normal range. It is mostly between the range of 119 to 66 and it is of the normal range. Though the minor fluctuation can be observed due to the effect of an exercise but it’s quite temporary. Overall he is a healthy person.

Conclusion:

                   The effect of the exercise on both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure is evident from the results. Systolic blood pressure when heart beats tends to be quite faster when taken the exercise but it then normalize after sometime. The diastolic pressure between arteries, when the heart rest between beats, also changes but not too much. The average BP of Nasra is better than Souda that’s mean he is healthier than Souda. Also the pulse rate seems to be quite normal 82 the ideal one in the case of Nasra while Souda pulse rate seems to be quite high 100 as compared to 82.

 

Step 4: Reflection 

The experiment thus carried out to analyse the difference between the blood pressure and the effects of different activities on the blood pressure. The distinctive change can be found out in the blood pressure due to these activities.  The extreme care was taken in noting down the blood pressure of both the persons before and after the exercises and by noting it down in the tabular form in the report.

The thing that can be improved in the future experiments is that the blood pressure of persons of different physiques would be noted down. In the present report, both the specimens and persons are of almost the same physique so a slight change in the measurement can be observed. People of different physical build up may have quite different effect of exercise on their blood pressure. So a distinct change can be felt in both the results.

The most important things that have been learnt through these experiments are the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the effect of gentle exercise over the pulse rate and the blood pressure of both the patients.

 

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