“The behavior or patterns of activities or society or culture are deemed right for men and women. These behavioral patterns may or may not be related to sex and sex roles, although they often are.
Gender is a social construct, and it refers to the characteristics of men and women. Gender is a result of sociocultural influence. These are shaped by society and culture; and they vary from society to society and can change over the long haul. According To Butler and Postmodernists, sex and gender cannot be separated. Gendering is the process of socialization according to the dominant gender norms.
It is biological, which is determined by physical characteristics. It includes sex chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, reproductive structures, and genitalia (Shockley et al, 2017).
The way we are supposed to act, speak, and behave based on our sex is referred to as gender role. The traditional view prescribes that woman should behave in ways that are nurturing.
GENDER STEREOTYPES refer to certain traits that are adhered to men and women in society that define these genders. These are formed at age of 57 years.
SEXUAL HARASSMENT of women in the workplace occurs around the world, but so many cases go unreported. Both men and women can be sexually harassed, however as a matter of fact; women are the most common victims.
The effects of sexual harassment on mental health include problems such as stress, anxiety, poor performance, depression and loss of the job. Sexual harassment is common, especially on construction sites.
According to studies, everyone perceives sexual bribery, unwanted touching, or pressure for sexual activity as harassment (Kelan, 2018). However, there is disagreement about behaviors such as sexist comments, and sexual jokes that are perceived as sexually harassing by many individuals. In some countries, sexual harassment is a crime and punishable by jail. In some other countries,
“ SEXUAL HARASSMENT IS A CIVIL RIGHTS VIOLATION.
Employers who violate or tolerate violations of rules and regulations can face financial penalties.
There are two major types of sexual harassment.
1. Quid pro quo
When an individual is forced to submit to unpleasant sexual approaches or sexual conduct.
2. Hostile environment harassment
Making unwanted participation in any sexual behavior that interferes with a persons performance and creates an insulting environment for him/her.
SEXUAL DISCRIMINATION against womens work is that the quality of womens work tends to be undervalued. One potential consequence of undervaluing womens work is that women receive less credit and less pay for their work. Job applications or resumes are particularly likely to trigger prejudiced evaluation (Feeney, 2019). Some discrimination against women’s unemployment is rooted in the old notion that they do not have the same right as men to be employed. All these reasons are linked by gender role expectations.
According to the MenCare campaign,
“True equality will only be reached when men
take on 50% of the world’s childcare and domestic work.
Pratto and her colleagues proposed
Jobs or roles that promote the interest of powerful groups.
Jobs or roles that promote the interest of oppressed groups.
It is an important factor for both employers and employees as it has a significant role in the way people interact with one another. Employed women still undertake the majority of housework.
According to studies conducted by the DIVISION OF LABOR within United States households,
“Employed married women do less housework than their unemployed counterparts, but their spouses do little or nothing to make up for the difference.
There are four forms of masculinity.
Men have faced difficulties adjusting to changes in women’s roles and responsibilities. At work, they had to adjust with women. According to some people, women were taking positions that should have gone to unemployed men (Game, 2020).
“WOMEN MAKE UP 98.1 PERCENT OF PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN TEACHERS, 95.3 PERCENT OF SECRETARIES, AND 90.6 PERCENT OF REGISTERED NURSES IN THE UNITED STATES.
Diversification of economies and encouragement of MNC.
Focus on “fixing the women not changing structures and processes.
Barrientos, S., 2019. Gender and work in global value chains: Capturing the gains?. Cambridge University Press.
Game, A., Pringle, R. and Grace, H., 2020. Gender at work. Routledge.
Feeney, M.K. and Stritch, J.M., 2019. Familyfriendly policies, gender, and work–life balance in the public sector. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 39(3), pp.422448.
Kelan, E.K., 2018. Men doing and undoing gender at work: A review and research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 20(2), pp.544558.
Pieh, C., Budimir, S. and Probst, T., 2020. The effect of age, gender, income, work, and physical activity on mental health during coronavirus disease (COVID19) lockdown in Austria. Journal of psychosomatic research, 136, p.110186.
Shockley, K.M., Shen, W., DeNunzio, M.M., Arvan, M.L. and Knudsen, E.A., 2017. Disentangling the relationship between gender and work–family conflict: An integration of theoretical perspectives using metaanalytic methods. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(12), p.1601.