Marketing Management Assignment

Introduction of Primark

Retailer Primark specializes on apparel, accessories, and footwear, and is one of the largest in the world. The Weston family in Dublin, Ireland, founded the business in 1969. In the wake of its success as Penney’s, the company branched out into new markets. The shop presently has 398 locations around the world. Customers who are looking for the latest fashions at reasonable prices appreciate the company's low-cost offerings.

Primark's annual revenue in 2020 was estimated by Statista to be 5.9 billion pounds, down from 7.79 billion pounds in 2019. However, the daily operations of the retail fashion brand are managed by around 78,000 employees.

Section 1

1.1SWOT Analysis of Primark


•Market In Europe

Primark is one of Europe's leading clothing retailers. 392 stores are estimated to be in operation throughout Europe by the company, which includes the United States, the United Kingdom and other countries in Europe, such as Slovenia and Spain as well as the Netherlands and Italy. One of the most popular retailers in the United Kingdom, Primark's products are very affordable. As a matter of fact, it offers products at a 30% to 40% lower cost than their American counterparts (Sandra Halliday,2020).

•Marketing By Word Of Mouth

A lot of money isn't spent by Primark on promoting their products. When it comes to word-of-mouth marketing, the retail fashion industry treats its employees and customers significantly better than it treats the company itself. It aids the company in reducing expenses and making lower-priced products available to its customers.

•Rate Of Growth Is Extremely High

Prior to the covid-19 outbreak and the subsequent global lockdown, Primark had been growing significantly. In 2019, the fashion store made 7.79 billion pounds in annual revenue. An expansion of the company's customer base was the goal. On the other hand, the business plans to restart its expansion. (Mary Hanbury, 2021).

•Portfolio Of Products

Primark has a vast variety of products and services for customers to choose from. Accessories, footwear, underwear, and apparel are all part of the assortment. Since it offers a wide range of products, the business can appeal to many different types of customers.



Manufacturers for Primark come from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and China; these are the nations where Primark sources its products. Many low-cost workers can be found in these countries. However, several customers have complained that the company's products have fallen in quality due to over-outsourcing. Most crucially, the lack of trade and energy in third-world countries results in a fluctuating supply of products (Camilla Hodgson, 2020).


Over the years, Primark has had to cope with various problems. For example, 260 of the brand's franchisees have been paying their workers less than the legal minimum wage.

•Threat To Suitability

Primark's cheaper prices are undeniable, but the company's products have suffered as a result. There are two reasons for this: first, the lack of required skills in third world outsourcing countries, and second, the lower quality of the materials.


•The Fitness Industry

Clothing is an area where Primark is already active. To remain relevant in the ever-changing world of fashion, the organisation should now look to grow into the sportswear industry.

•Consulting & Expanding the Market

As a first step, Primark should survey Latin American and Asian countries like Brazil and Argentina to learn more about their consumers' preferences. The information gleaned from the study would aid the organisation in determining its target market for expansion.


•Insufficient Supply Line

With its supply chain and product line fragile, natural calamities and international trade concerns are a constant threat to Primark. It's because the retail clothing brand relies on products manufactured in Asia. There are a variety of things that could go wrong during the manufacturing process and the transportation of the final product.


Retailers such as JC Penney, Forever 21, Amazon, Gap Inc. and Walmart's Old Navy are some of Primark's main rivals in a variety of categories. The company's ability to operate and expand its business is hampered by their presence on the market.

1.2 PESTLE Analysis

•Political Factors

It's important to note that in UK, dealing with political risk can be tough. The system of administration has frequently led to tensions between the national government and the governments of the provinces and localities. In addition, there are continual disagreements over which legal frameworks should be employed to resolve individual problems. It's also unclear who should enforce or not enforce what legislation, resulting in an enforcement gap in the United States. As a result, it's difficult to know with certainty what rules will be in effect, so learning about the applicable laws is essential. The available industries have hardly begun to approach nationalization. As a result, many hazards exist, including the confiscation of investments, the refusal to permit currency conversion, and the possibility of economic agreements being repudiated.


Like many other businesses, Primark has been adversely hit by the pandemic. Because of the economic downturn, Primark's potential customers will have less discretionary income and will be less inclined to spend a lot of money on clothing, which will hurt the retailer's performance (Buye, 2021). Despite this, Primark's demand is significantly more inflexible in relation to income than that of some of its garment competitors, giving it a huge advantage over its more expensive counterparts. Consumers will have less money to spend as a result of this. Primark offers stylish clothing at lower prices for fashion-conscious ladies, thus many of them may choose to shop there when they want to appear their best. As for the economy as a whole, gasoline costs are a major concern. Moreover, a barrel of oil hit a price of $147 (the highest it has ever been). When gasoline prices were this high, Primark's transportation expenses would have skyrocketed. Only two distribution locations are available to Primark: one in Leicestershire, the United Kingdom, and another in Naas, the Netherlands. Fuel costs in the UK and Ireland, Holland, and Spain will be high because of its vast distribution. Due to the rising cost of oil, Primark's profit margins will be cut. Customers may see a drop in sales if the company decides to pass on the costs. The Bank of England's reduction in interest rates is an additional crucial economic issue to consider. There have been five cuts in interest rates since October, when they were at 5%. At this point, they're at 0.5%. For the most part, homeowners will be repaying their mortgages with substantially less money than they were previously because of the historically low interest rates. In this way, consumers will have more resources to pay on clothing, which could result in an increase in sales for Primark. Several of these mortgage holders may already be Primark customers because of their restricted buying power. Now that they also have more money to spend, they may choose to buy at more upscale clothing stores.


Advertising and product promotion are being affected by the global shift in consumer tastes. The internet has a significant impact on how items are marketed. It's important for the organisation to stay on top of social trends in order to keep its clients up to date. In order to attract new clients, Primark must keep up with the latest fashion trends (Fosher, 2018). Shopping in the UK is dominated by 'value clothing.' Two out of every five Americans now admit to shopping at "value" stores. This implies that shoppers are now looking for lower-priced alternatives to designer apparel. As a result, Primark has a significant edge over other high-street clothes businesses in the UK market. According to the style press, Primark was dubbed "Pri-Marni" for copying fashion spin-offs, and became the UK's most popular discount clothes retailer overtaking Asda in that year. To meet the demands of young ladies who desire attractive attire at a lower price, Primark has produced designer replicas that are constructed of less expensive fabric. An judicious use of this social aspect resulted in tremendous sales. As a modern company, Primark understands that it must conduct business responsibly in order to maintain its good reputation. On their website, they demonstrate this by describing their ethical approach to business. Global garment supply chain difficulties necessitate a wide range of organisations working together to guarantee that the benefits of international commerce are shared. According to their ethical strategy, they want all of the people who work on their products to be properly compensated and treated. However, the BBC discovered in January 2009 that some of Primark's suppliers were acting unethically.

Furthermore, Primark intends to take advantage of the growing trend of businesses needing to be more eco-friendly as a way to succeed in the present business climates. Instead of a plastic bag, customers at Primark are given a brown paper bag for the vast majority of their purchases. Primark plastic bags are exclusively used for large items that might tear the paper bag handles if packaged in those bags instead. Paper bags are better for the environment because they are more biodegradable. By doing this, Primark may project a more socially conscious image to the public.


Primark has kept up with the times by developing cutting-edge technological marketing strategies that have resulted in increased revenue for the company. In order to keep clients loyal, they have embraced the use of credit cards. Additionally, they've included the internet as a tool to evaluate their products. Having all of their branches connected to the internet has made managing their stock much easier (Sammut-Bonnici and Galea, 2018).

Section 2

Identification of Opportunities and threats due to PESTLE

A PESTLE analysis is a standard method for obtaining a wide range of data. This tool's primary feature is its ability to reveal the external factors that may have an impact on internal decisions. (Srdjevic, Bajcetic and Srdjevic, 2012). It becomes easier for Primark to prepare effectively when they are aware of the impact these external events have on them.

Even though PESTLE analysis can be used to evaluate individual businesses, it is most effective when applied to a larger, company-wide perspective. Understanding the current and future state of the company environment is a simple method to identify and take advantage of potential opportunities or prevent potential hazards (Journal, Rastogi and Trivedi, 2016). Using PESTLE analysis for this purpose may necessitate some forecasting or prediction, since Primark looking into the future on a daily basis. In spite of this, present-day data can nevertheless provide valuable information about the company's potential opportunities and threats. Some examples of how each PESTLE factor might be interpreted are as follows:

•It is possible to foresee regulatory hazards based on political characteristics.

•In order for Primark to respond to changing market conditions, they need to know how the economy is doing.

•There are sociocultural elements that could either benefit or harm the business.

•In general, with the growth of the infrastructure to support new technologies and the general evolution of technology, new opportunities are continually being opened up.

•Primark can avoid costly fines or penalties thanks to legal considerations.

Section 3

Leadership Style

In their book "Primal Leadership," published in 2002, Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis, and Annie McKee identified six distinct emotional leadership styles. People's emotions are affected differently by each of these communication styles, and each has advantages and disadvantages depending on the situation. Authoritative, coaching, affiliation, and democracy are four styles that encourage cooperation and good outcomes, while coerciveness and pacesetting are two styles that can cause conflict and should only be utilized in specific circumstances. It is the opinion of Goleman and his co-authors that there should not be a single style employed exclusively.


When a leader employs the Authoritative leadership style, they motivate their team to work toward a single objective. Rather than telling their teams how they'll get to where they're going, authoritative leaders let their teams figure out how to get there on their own. Authoritative leadership relies heavily on empathy (Hasan et al., 2018)

•Coaching Leadership

Asrar-ul-Haq and Kuchinke, (2016) said that, the purpose of the Coaching leadership style is to bring together the individual aspirations of employees and the collective aspirations of the company. Empathic and encouraging, a leader who employs this approach aims to help others succeed in the future. Instead than focusing on immediate responsibilities, this strategy encourages managers to have in-depth discussions with employees about their long-term goals and how they relate to the company's mission. Employees respond well to this style because it inspires and fosters a sense of belonging and trust.

•Affiliative Leadership

Affiliative leadership encourages cooperation among the members of the group. This style encourages inclusivity and conflict resolution by connecting people together. To communicate in this manner, people must value and priorities the feelings of others (Abasilim, Gberevbie and Osibanjo, 2019).

•Democratic Leadership

Democratic leadership emphasizes the need of working together. Instead of dictating what their teams should do, executives that employ this leadership style actively seek their input.

•Pacesetting Leadership

Performance and achievement are at the heart of the Pacesetting leadership approach. It's common for leaders in this type of leadership style to put themselves in the shoes of their subordinates to ensure that goals are reached. Poor performers are not given special treatment in the Pacesetting method; instead, they are held to a higher standard. There are benefits to this approach, but it can lead to burnout, weariness, and high employee turnover if the team isn't properly cared for.

•Coercive Leadership

Autocratic leadership is used by those who are coerced to lead. Orders, the (often implicit) fear of punishment, and a firm grip on power are hallmarks of this leadership style. Democracy-loving citizens are accustomed to having some say over their own destiny, which this approach violates. As a result, this leadership style can have a detrimental impact on a team because it is so frequently misused.

Best Leadership for Primark

A research conducted by Al-Malki and Juan, (2018) as per researcher, every leadership style has its own significant. However, in the difficult time leaders need to increase the team’s moral for better performance. Therefore, affiliative leadership is suitable for Primark. In order to boost team morale and success, Affiliative leaders employ positive communication. This does not imply that the leader is a coward. Through positive communication, the affiliative leader can effectively inspire an employee to reevaluate his or her conduct.

Teams and organisations infused with an affiliative leadership style tend to have a high level of communication. Ideas and constructive dialogue can spread more easily when there is a strong sense of harmony and a strong emotional tie between the participants. Organizations can greatly benefit from this.

Section 4

Corporate Social Responsibility

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) uses a self-regulatory business model in order to keep a company accountable to its stakeholders and the general public. By embracing corporate social responsibility, businesses can become more cognizant of the effects they have on the economy, society, and the environment (also known as corporate citizenship). Corporations are required to implement corporate social responsibility (CSR) when they operate in ways that assist society and the environment instead of damaging them (Tilt, 2016).

CSR of Primark

Primark's customers may now select more environmentally friendly choices while still paying a reasonable price. To do this, Primark are embedding sustainability into their own operations and supply networks. Their products and practices should demonstrate a more environmentally friendly attitude, and they are working hard to achieve that goal. As a result, Primark put policies and procedures in place to ensure that their suppliers are meeting the high expectations. And that any issues or concerns are brought to the notice as soon as they arise (Vivian Hendriksz, 2017).

Moreover, Primark has set some standards and code of conduct in order to fulfil the social corporate responsibilities. Below are the detail discussion of their CSR activates:

•Codes of Conduct

The Ethical Trade and Environmental Sustainability Program is based on Primark's Code of Conduct. Primark's terms and conditions of sale include this comprehensive list of requirements.

Although they don't control any of the factories that produce the products they offer, their Code of Conduct requires them to only do business with those that agree to their standards. This set of requirements must be followed by every facility that produces Primark products, and that have put in place procedures to ensure that they are. Among the 13 sections in the Code of Conduct Primark zero-tolerance stance to child labour and bribery, workers' rights to organize a trade union, and measures to ensure that people don't work excessive hours. As a result, they expect all factories who supply Primark to follow sound environmental practices. Before any orders can be placed, their Ethical Trade team inspects each manufacturer to ensure that the required requirements have been met. A professional team of more than 130 people in key main supply-chain areas performs social audits and checks on continuing compliance once the program has been approved. At least once a year, if not more frequently, the audit teams visit each factory to ensure that international standards are being met. Whenever problems are found, the team will work with suppliers and their factories to help them find solutions, train their employees, and establish joint projects to safeguard their well-being.

They have been a member of the UK Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI) since 2006, and Primark has been granted leadership status in the organisation since 2011. The ETI Base Code, an internationally recognized code of labour practice based on ILO agreements, serves as the foundation for the Primark Supplier Code of Conduct.

•Environmental Stewardship

Primark are not starting from scratch when it comes to making the company more environmentally friendly. As a result, the company has taken steps to reduce its environmental footprint, but they recognize the need to go much further. There are environmental sustainability experts that work directly with business suppliers and their factories, as well as with other organisations, to ensure that the products are safe and environmentally friendly. It describes their environmental goals and demonstrates their commitment to sustainability. It explains why people expect their products to be produced in a more environmentally friendly manner. Responsible raw material sourcing, such as the use of certified organic cotton, is a part of this effort.

•Identifying and responding to threats

To keep an eye out for potential threats, they perform regular due diligence across the entire company. Primark procedure is the product of extensive research with human rights organisations and benchmarking. OECD Due Diligence Guidelines for Responsible Supply Chains in the Garment and Footwear Sector and UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights are both in line with this. The following are the four main components of their strategy:

•Assessments of the country's risk

Every country they source from is assessed based on existing external reports and publicly available, reputable information sources. A wide range of analyses and risk-mapping are included here, including political, economic, social and legal. The garment and footwear industries, as well as other subsectors and industries, are all considered in the evaluations. As a result of this, they are better equipped to:

Identify the most significant hazards in each country in our supply chains, such as forced and child labour, and build a thorough picture of these risks.

Investigate the underlying causes of these dangers in order to better prepare

Seek out those who are already tackling these problems and understand what they've learned so that they can apply it to their work.

•Primark Internal Data Analysis

As one of the most critical resources, the local Ethical Trade and Environmental Sustainability teams are their "eyes and ears" on the ground. Over 130 local specialists in several major sourcing nations have been recruited from a variety of sources, including other firms, development organisations, and civil society. They are based in the countries where they source their products. Workplace policies and standards are monitored by the teams, which also assists in risk prevention and management in the supply chain. They have direct access to all supply chain workers, as well as other external partners and specialists on the ground, making them an invaluable resource.

They also have access to over 34,000 audits done on Primark's suppliers since 2007 in their central audit database, which provides us with intelligence and analysis.

•Stakeholders Consultation

External stakeholders are a crucial source of information and guidance in any project or endeavor. There are a number of factors that can help managers detect and mitigate supply chain risks. Their wisdom and experience are priceless. External stakeholders are also involved in the formulation of plans and ways to prevent or resolve problems. Civil society organisations, trade unions, governments, international agencies, intergovernmental agencies, multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSIs), and legal experts are examples of stakeholders.

•Consultation with rights holders and worker participation

However, workers throughout the supply chain are often excluded from the due diligence process or experience difficulties in getting their thoughts and perspectives to be heard. Working with local and regional stakeholders, they have been able to gain an understanding of the demands of workers. Factory management and workers are also frequently approached by our local teams. This helps us better understand the challenges individuals confront, as well as the impact our work has had on them.


Abasilim, U. D., Gberevbie, D. E. and Osibanjo, O. A. (2019) ‘Leadership Styles and Employees’ Commitment: Empirical Evidence From Nigeria:’,

. SAGE PublicationsSage CA: Los Angeles, CA, 9(3). doi: 10.1177/2158244019866287. Al-Malki, M. and Juan, W. (2018) ‘Leadership Styles and Job Performance: a Literature Review’, Journal of International Business Research and Marketing. Inovatus Usluge d.o.o., 3(3), pp. 40–49. doi: 10.18775/JIBRM.1849-8558.2015.33.3004.

Asrar-ul-Haq, M. and Kuchinke, K. P. (2016) ‘Impact of leadership styles on employees’ attitude towards their leader and performance: Empirical evidence from Pakistani banks’, Future Business Journal. No longer published by Elsevier, 2(1), pp. 54–64. doi: 10.1016/J.FBJ.2016.05.002.

Buye, R. (2021) Critical examination of the PESTEL Analysis Model. Camilla Hodgson (2020) Primark and Sports Direct Failed to Pay More Than 10,000 Workers Minimum Wage. Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2022).

Fosher, H. (2018) ‘Understanding the Marketing and Management of trails using Understanding the Marketing and Management of trails using PESTEL Analysis PESTEL Analysis’, pp. 1–44. Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2022).

Hasan, E. et al. (2018) ‘Impact of Leadership Styles on Organizational Performance’, Journal of Human Resources Management Research, 2018. doi: 10.5171/2018.687849.

Journal, I., Rastogi, N. and Trivedi, M. K. (2016) ‘PESTLE TECHNIQUE-A TOOL TO IDENTIFY EXTERNAL RISKS IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS’. Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2022).

Mary Hanbury (2018) Primark Does Not Sell Online: Here’s Why. Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2022).

Sammut-Bonnici, T. and Galea, D. (2018) ‘PEST analysis’, Wiley Encyclopedia of Management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 1–1. doi: 10.1002/9781118785317.WEOM120113.

Sandra Halliday (no date) Primark boosts UK market share, says Europe and US look strong - News?: distribution (#1189833), 2020. Available at:,1189833.html (Accessed: 10 February 2022).

Srdjevic, Z., Bajcetic, R. and Srdjevic, B. (2012) ‘Identifying the Criteria Set for Multicriteria Decision Making Based on SWOT/PESTLE Analysis: A Case Study of Reconstructing A Water Intake Structure’, Water Resources Management 2012 26:12. Springer, 26(12), pp. 3379–3393. doi: 10.1007/S11269-012-0077-2.

Tilt, C. A. (2016) ‘Corporate social responsibility research: the importance of context’, International Journal of Corporate Social Responsibility 2016 1:1. SpringerOpen, 1(1), pp. 1–9. doi: 10.1186/S40991-016-0003-7.

Vivian Hendriksz (2017) Primark sustainability, ethics, supply chain. Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2022).

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