The negative behaviors towards some membership and groups are referred to as discrimination where both behaviors and actions towards decisions and judgments about group numbers are included. Another useful definition of discrimination is provided by coral as he stated that behavior that is directed towards group members is a consequence of their outcomes. He further stated that those outcomes are not directed towards them because of their reciprocity and particular deservingness but that is directed because it happens to the members of that particular category. The notion of deservingness has a central position in the experience and expression of discrimination (Stangor, 2016). Even though it is not defined criteria objectively but still it has its root in history as well as present-day social norms and inequalities. Even when they target themselves as disagree perpetrators still they see their behaviors as justified by the deservingness of the target. Some behaviors are judged by people to be discriminatory while it is not seen as such by others.
The expression of discrimination is classified broadly into two types One is subtle, automatic, or unconscious and the other one is overt or direct. Verbal and non-verbal hostility, aggressive approach behaviors, denial of opportunities, avoidance of contact, and access to equal treatment are included in manifestations. Between the members of non-dominant groups and dominant groups, there are some systemic disparities of cultures and historical periods across the range of domains. For instance, constant worst health outcomes, harsher treatment in the Justice System, and worse school performance are experienced by ethnic minorities. Women are paid less in both academic and business domains and lower-status positions, qualifications and controlled occupations are held by them as compared to men (Kite & Whitley Jr, 2016). It is shown in the sociological research that in terms of the labor market minority suffer from a phenomenon which is known as ethnic penalty. After controlling age, educational qualifications, and experience in the labor market some net disadvantages are being experienced by ethnic minorities. It is referred to as ethnic penalties. On the other hand, the ethnic minority is not equated with discrimination as a major factor responsible for the existence of ethnic penalty is discrimination. The existence of spatial mismatch, social networks, and bridging between availability and opportunity of this labor and differences in preferences is due to the consequences of discrimination as it ranges from an equal treatment received by the minority group numbers during the process of application and over the course of their socialization and education (Marchiondo, Ran, & Cortina, 2018).
The prevalence and problems encountered in discrimination are engaged by social psychologists by studying several processes. By understanding when discrimination occurs can help to overcome it. In this chapter we outline 3 theories of social psychology of discrimination, field studies, ways to measure discrimination and its consequences will also be discussed.
For this essay, we choose 2 theories named as social identity theory and the second is aversive racism theory. We outline the first theoretical framework of social identity theory. In social psychology, this theory was proposed by Tajfel and his colleagues and it is their greatest contribution to psychology. On the basis of group membership, social identity is a sense of individual of who they are. Group members are motivated enough to protect their self-esteem and they achieve distinct and positive social identity; according to the social identity perspective. The ways in which the self-concept of the individuals are based on their membership in social groups is also referred by social identity. It was proposed by Tajfel that groups to which people belong such as football team, family, and social class are an important source of self-esteem and pride for them. A sense of belonging to the social world and a sense of social identity is given to us by such groups. However, the world is divided into ‘us’ and ‘them’ on the basis of a process of social categorization i.e., people are put into social groups. Moreover, making groups of people and categorizing them (stereotyping) is based on a normal cognitive process as proposed by Tajfel. It is the tendency to group things together (Hogg, 2020). While doing this, the similarity of things in the same group and the differences between groups is exaggerated.
Examples of social groups include ethnic groups, nationalities, religion, sports groups, occupations, gender, and sexual orientation. In politics it is labor and the conservatives, in gender it is male and female, in football team it is Liverpool and Man Utd, in social class it is middle and working classes, in Germany, it is Jews and the Nazis, and in Yugoslavia, it is Serbs and Bosnians (Scheepers & Ellemers, 2019). It was proposed by Turner and Tajfel that almost three mental processes are present for evaluating 'them' or 'us' i.e., out group and in group. That particular order of three mental processes is categorization, social identification, and social comparison.
To understand and identify objects, things are categorized. The same is the case with people as they are categorized in order to understand that social environment. When people that assign to the category then some particular things become associated to them. Social categories like Australian, Whites, Blacks, Christian, student, Muslim, and bus drivers are used because they are useful. As we saw with the example of bus drivers and no one can function in a normal manner without using the phrase 'in the context of the bus.' An individual can belong to many different groups yet similarities are found in things about people in the groups they are categorized. They are defined according to the norms of the groups they belong (Trepte & Loy, 2017).
The identity of the group in which a person is categorized is adopted in social identification. If a person has categorized himself as a student then he will adopt the activities he believes a student must have, will act in the same manner of a student, and will have the identity of the student. He will conform to the norms of the student group. That person will have an emotional significance to the identification of the student group and his self-esteem will be bound with that group membership.
It is the final stage in social identity. When a person categorizes himself as a part of a group and is being identified within that group then he will compare himself with other groups. If the self-esteem of that person is maintained, then other groups will compare themselves with that group. It is very critical in understanding prejudice when there is the identification of two groups as rivals they will force themselves to compete in order to maintain self-esteem. Hostility and competition between two groups is not only the matter of competing for resources like job but it is for the competition of identities (Trepte & Loy, 2017).Discrimination is due to the drive for a positive social identity which is expressed as a more common spontaneous treatment to the in-group or direct harm to the outgroup. This phenomenon is also known as in-group bias. It is also observed that categorization is a group member leads to in-group bias that is in allocation and evaluation of resources it arises favoritism among in-group members over outgroup members.
Participants are classified as belonging to arbitrary groups in the minimal group paradigm studies and members of in-group and outgroup are evaluated. They also take part in a reward allocation task. When it is required to create a discriminatory treatment, socialization is sufficient as it is often motivated by in-group favoritism. It generates responses that are approved, gives advantages directly to the outgroups and has a direct competition between groups as it generates biasness.
Moreover, general processes leading to inter-group discrimination are also examined by social identity theory and it also addresses the ways through which behaviors and attitudes of people regarding their outgroup and in-group is affected. When membership in a particular group is considered central to the self-concept then social identities are most influential and it is saying that strong emotion is felt for that group. Self-esteem is conferred by the affiliation with a group due to which social identity is sustained. Intergroup bias and within group assimilation are some important social identities that has an association with it. In that words to explain socialization in peer groups and group-based prejudice and to explain conformity social identity theory is used in developmental psychology. The emphasis on personal identity is complemented by social identity theory and its research. On the other hand, first name and then today refer to the unique way in which people define themselves as individuals that is I. In this personal values and interests of individuals are also included. For this purpose, self-categorization was introduced by Turner and his colleagues according to which self-categorization of the individual consists of both social identity and personal identity. For example, the behavior of personal identity is guided more accurately when a person is alone or interacting with the clothes friend. Andy that had it is indicated by the research that when social identities are salient then prejudice and group stereotyping are more likely dominant. On the other hand, prejudice is reduced when children from different social groups (such as differences on the basis of gender ethnicity, and race) are assigned to work cooperatively on the same task.
Aversive racism is the second theory we are going to look at, complements social identity theory (which implies that intergroup discrimination is widespread) by determining when discrimination will be displayed or prevented. Samuel L. Gaertner and John F established the hypothesis of aversive racism in 1986 in which they show unfavorable attitudes towards ethnic minorities and racial minorities.
However, aversive racism is defined by more complicated, ambiguous statements and attitudes toward other races but yet holding prejudices against them. Individuals who ostensibly support egalitarian ideas and principles yet experience negative emotions in the presence of members of specific racial groups, especially in uncertain situations, suffer from this type of racial prejudice (Murrell, 2020).
One of the finest instances of aversive racism is workplace discrimination. Individuals' interactions with minority members are influenced by biased assumptions about how minorities act and think. Aversive racism is demonstrated, for example, when a White employer favors White candidates over Black candidates in job interviews then all of the people's qualities for the post are unclear (Bloch, 2021). Prejudice and discrimination against minorities and other stigmatized groups are becoming increasingly illegal, and it is revealed that emerging racist are aversive to many White Americans, not only in terms of their public image but also in terms of their private self-concept. However, a variety of individual and societal variables continue to reinforce preconceptions and negative evaluative biases, resulting in persistent discriminating expression and experience (Johnson & Hong, 2017). Equality rules create a lot of psychological turmoil because individuals see prejudice as unjust and insulting, yet they can't seem to get rid of their own biases. As a result, ethnic and racial sentiments have grown more nuanced than in the past.
Three psychological supports for aversive racism were suggested by Dovidio and Gaertner. People are prone to cognitive categorization as humans, and grouping people into distinct categories helps them to recognize the contrasts between other groups and the groups with which they identify. People are motivated to control the world around them when they deal with outgroups after they recognize these distinctions. This motive is ideal because people want nice encounters, especially with minorities. It is observed that to believe in an egalitarian belief system American youngsters are indoctrinated. The most powerful psychological support is the socialization of two sets of contradictory values. They wanted that all my notice would be treated with fairness and equality as they are educated on visual customers in which American history is represented by them.
Inconsistency in conduct towards outgroup members is observed when these two sets of incompatible values collide (Scott, Miller, Kelly, Richman, & Park, 2016). As a result of these two sets of ideas, they had an internal bad effect which is manifested itself in their attitudes and actions toward others. Racism is a broad topic while prejudice is a broad phenomenon through which behaviors and beliefs of individuals to broader social norms are connected and it practices disadvantages in particular groups. There is less likelihood of people to be discriminated against when situations are right and wrong and are clearly defined; as discrimination would be obvious to others and aversive races to not want to be discriminated.
According to the aversive racism theory, by sustaining egalitarian standards people overcome this tension while the statement automatic and subtle kind of bias. On the other hand, aversive racists will discriminate systemically if they excuse their behavior on the basis of reasons other than race or if their acceptable behavior is not clearly mandated. It was seen that almost 14,000 US citizens were consistent with the aversive concept. Despite the fact that 60% white seemed non-prejudiced on a self-report measure while on the race IAT bias was implicit as it was revealed by Whites (Dovidio, Gaertner, & Pearson, 2017).
Furthermore, the percentage of respondents who have pro-White implicit race prejudice does not differ significantly by age, gender, political ideology, or educational achievement. More liberal people, for example, show less explicit prejudice on self-report measures but have a pro-White implicit racial bias at levels comparable to conservatives. Both explicit and implicit racial bias was demonstrated by younger children, as they get older and more susceptible to egalitarian norms therefore explicit bias fades while it was seen that implicit bias persists. Furthermore, the mix of explicit and implicit views, as proposed by the aversive racism paradigm, is a major predictor of physician-patient relations. Although Black patients viewed doctors with stronger implicit racial bias less positively, Penner discovered that this impact was most prominent when doctors had high implicit bias and low explicit prejudice- the aversive racist profile. In particular, Black patients who dealt with aversive racist physicians were less happy with the contact and were not connected much to their doctors than Black patients who interacted with other doctors, including those with high levels of implicit and explicit bias. These effects may be attributed to implicitly prejudiced physicians' lack of knowledge of personal bias. As in Dovidio's study, doctors' perceptions were predominantly based on their expressed racial prejudices. During the visit, doctors with greater levels of explicit bias reported that in the medical decision-making process black patients were included less. When taken as a whole, current research shows that implicit biases play a substantial role in racism. They contribute to disparities in minority treatment in ways that are unrelated to explicit (self-reported) personal prejudices (Penner et al., 2010).
2.5.Measuring Racial discrimination
The principal had near-unanimous support Which led the general social survey in the United States to drop its equal employment opportunity question. Many ways are clear and precise to measure the impulses and to evaluate the situation that precedes discrimination. The clear measurement of misconceptions is self-report measures which include the statement of included participants related to their attitudes, tendency to work out toward a particular target. The self-reported measures Assume that participants are conscious of their behaviors, tendencies to work, and evaluations So that they can construct themselves in a way for the reduction of socially desirable responses. The meta-analysis has conducted a study that shows the relationship between explicit prejudice and discrimination which came out to be a modest correlation between them. Moreover, the results of the study are also reliable due to intergroup context which suggests the reliability of relationships and explicit Myers despite the modest correlation effect sizes (Hogg, Terry, & White, 1995).
However, the review of all discrimination theories suggested that biases is not necessary to be intentional or intentional for the creation of unfair discrimination. The implicit measurement of prejudice for the evaluations and beliefs that are automatically unconscious majorly activated by the presence or emotions of the participants. The implicit measurement helps in the reduction of social desirability concerns that plague the explicit measurements because it allows the capturing of prejudice of participants that they are mostly unwilling or unable to show. An example of implicit measurement is the implicit association test which is based on the findings of participants about making quick emotional connections between the pairs of ideas that are already related to their minds. Therefore, the implicit measurement is difficult to do and takes a longer time to accomplish for the production of incompatible evaluations than compatible responses. In the example case of ageism, the time required is longer for some people to pair up the words like old and good as compared to pair up the words like old and bad. This example involves a bias in the minds of people such that the presence of stronger mental associations between stereotypic consistent features that are mostly negative emotions and particular groups which are considered to be an example of prejudice. These connections are less stronger between stereotype inconsistent features and group memberships. The time required for the response is not dependent on any important or accurate feature of the question groups but it is the reflection of well-learned associations in a culture that is automatically conscious in minds of people. The meta-analysis was conducted for the study of relationship between the implicit prejudice and discrimination which came out to be a weak to modest relationship according to the context of studies dealing with black-white relations in the US. Moreover, the relationship between implicit measures and discrimination is stronger than the relationship between explicit measures and discrimination. There still remains the persistence of ethnically biased cognitions and associations in people despite their best intentions. The finding is the modern subtle form of prejudice that can be exploited by both the implicit and explicit measurements and it goes underground which has no conflict with anti-racist norms or cultures and it continues to shape the cognitive and emotional behaviors of people. Discrimination means the form of blaming the outgroup for the disadvantage and not supporting the policies that uplift the outgroup member and prevent the interactions with out-group members. It automatically treats the members of out-groups as embodying stereotypes traits of their groups and prefers the in-groups as compared to out groups leading to rewards allocation and ambivalent responses based on preferences to the in the group having a mixture of negative and positive views about the out-group members leading to the avoidance and passive harm to the out-group.
In a series of two studies, the presence and effects of subtle non-verbal discriminatory behaviors were studied in a classic social psychological paper among university students. In a study, one nonverbal discriminatory behavior was identified in white interviewers towards blacks and white job applicants (Sutter & Perrin, 2016). In the second study subtle discriminatory behaviors for demonstrated when it was directed by White interviewers against white applicants. It elicited stereotypical behaviors associated with blacks due to which it leads to poor performance in the interview and a self full-filling prophecy was demonstrated because treating others like they will fail often causes them to fail (Bijlstra, Holland, Dotsch, & Wigboldus, 2019). For an outgroup the negative stereotypes were demonstrated powerfully in this study and negative passive behavior was rising which in turn have consequences of performance reduction for the recipients of such nonverbal behaviors. Unlawful discrimination is constituted in legal settings due to the treatment of negative verbal and nonverbal behaviors that result in the creation of a hostile work environment. In some studies hiring decisions also have their counterparts. Gender discrimination was observed in hiring by asking professionals to evaluate resumes of women and men for jobs that were either feminine or masculine in nature. Virtually identical inferences were made about the personality traits on the basis of information provided about females and male job applicants that were having the same information in their resumes. However masculine female applicant information was perceived to be independent, aggressive, and strong while muscular and male applicants were decisive. For the job of secretary and receptionist female applicants were preferred consistently over male applicants even when the applicants were not different in the degree to which they possessed feminine personality traits or masculine personality traits. It was believed that certain occupations were considered to be gendered by the employers and so they hire the applicants on the basis of stereotype rather than on the basis of non-gendered information of the applicants. So it was evaluated that in explaining hiring preferences for gendered occupations the gender plays a proportionate role.
Although several significant contributions are made by the theories discussed above in the understanding of social identity and its relationship to the language yet several concerns are present about them. It is discussed by Tajfel that social identity is dynamic but he does not discuss multiple group memberships. On the basis of ethnic and gender characteristics, most of the individuals are categorized into groups but they need to be categorized on the basis of their economic circumstances and personal beliefs. As individuals can be placed into specific ethnic groups on the basis of the language they speak. Individuals can wish to identify with a certain group in a specific context rather than choosing to belong to one group or the other which means they can speak different languages in different situations. Even though social identity is considered to be dynamic by many social identity researchers but the methods that are used in research such as interviews, observations, and questionnaires do not allow for dynamism as they occur one time typically. It is observed that most of the studies that have conducted by the social psychologist were confined to be surveys and questioners except for the few structured interviews (Olson & Zabel, 2016).
Most Whites have strong convictions that are concerned with justice, fairness, and racial equality because of current cultural values. Therefore, some negative feelings are developed in the White people towards the beliefs and behaviors of Blacks because of the range of normal social culture processes, motivational and cognitive processes through which intergroup bases are promoted (Neblett Jr, 2019). The basic reality of beliefs and attitudes is represented by the existence of these nearly unavoidable racial biases along with the desire of non-prejudiced simultaneously. All these beliefs and attitudes towards aversive racists are producing racial ambivalence. It is also recognized that all races are not subtle and aversive like the existence of old-fashioned racism. It is observed that many differences in the individuals in aversive racism exist and it is also observed that some Whites are not racist at all. But on the other hand in aversive racism theory generally, a large proportion of Whites are proposed to be categorized as having a racial attitude (Gaertner, Dovidio, Nier, Hodson, & Houlette, 2005).
A cumulative disadvantage is characterized by discrimination across times and sit situations. It is very problematic particularly in the situations where social networking is important such as health care, education, and employment. These exclusionary practices are damaging to the same extend as direct discrimination and active discrimination is. As it is demonstrated by several studies that are discussed above that consequences of discrimination other non-verbal and verbal results in stress and underperformance in many individuals. After studying black children of 10 to 12 years old in the USA it was demonstrated that depressive symptoms were observed due to the history of discrimination at both community level and individual level. In addition to this increase in anxiety after being discriminated against in several aspects, it also results in a disturbance of mental wellbeing. Depressive symptoms were observed in children at the individual level in addition to criminal victimization and uninvolved parenting due to the history of being discriminated against racially at a personal level against other white children. Depressive symptoms have an association with the history of discrimination at the community level over and above ethnic identification and criminal victimization. In the face of threats to their identities; individuals have one way through which they can protect self-esteem and regulate emotions is withdrawing efforts and disengaging themselves and their self-esteem from domains in which they are stereotyped negatively or have fear of being discriminated as a target. As a result, it can be stated that few questions can be answered from the woman who was primed with negative gender studio types, and instead in a challenging test they will focus more on verbal questions (Neblett Jr, 2019).
Social psychology is the study of how the behavior of individuals and groups is influenced by the behavior and presence of others. In other words, it is a study that determines how the feelings, thoughts, intentions, beliefs, and goals of individuals are constructed within a social context by imagined and actual interactions of individuals with others (Baumeister & Bushman, 2020).
When his tattoo discourse I have no idea that the behavior of others has an influence on the goals and feelings of others. At that time I used to think that in this course I will only study behaviors of others required to live in a society but I was not aware that I would learn so many things in depth. In this module, I learned how individuals are affected by the presence of other individuals around them and how they also have an impact on their social and physical environments. I got a better grasp of how our choices and actions are affected by the influence of group dynamics and how are interacting with other people is affected by our social perceptions. I have learnt all these things because of the efficient work of social psychologists.
After this module, I become able to describe the major concepts, major theories of discipline, and social psychological language for psychological phenomena. I have all to become able to explain some major perspectives of psychology and which social culture and impact behavior is included. Moreover, I can discuss the relationship between the situations and the individuals and its influence on aggression prejudice, attitudes, interpersonal relationships, and procession behaviors. In the area of social influence such as intergroup relationships, corporations, conflicts, conformity, and social influences can be described by me in an efficient way by the use of the dynamics of group behaviors.
After this assignment, I understand the concepts of prejudice, discrimination, stereotype, and the conditions that reduce prejudice. Therefore, I came to know about the attitudes and believes, the factors that are required in their formations, and their method of persuasion. However, I came to about how racism is affecting the brought up of children and changing situations for certain groups.
In the future to enhance the learning of students it is very essential that the complexity of these studies should be explored on the dynamic continent so that certain factors such as appearance, ethnicity, language, and personality can be explored and made acceptable for all other races without any complexities. When evaluating methodologies more longitudinal studies should be done in order to understand phases and multiple layers of the social psychological theories. Changing perspectives on psychology today needs to be questioned extended period of time and it should be compared with some similar and different cultural backgrounds so that individuals can be made cooperative. All the individuals should be encouraged to study their own history so that they can understand the history of others in a better way.
While searching on theories of discrimination I came to know that to create unfair discrimination biases do not have to be intentional or conscious necessarily. Moreover, having free tickets does not mean that all the individuals are engaged in discriminatory behaviors as a modest relationship is seen between explicit and implicit measures. Therefore, the negative attitude of all individuals does not go to discrimination. And in which would end an organization can be motivated towards known discriminatory behaviors by the strong norms of equal opportunity of diversity pieces of training and jobs due to profit motivation. It is clear that for minority groups discrimination have some consequences and it has stigmatized individuals’ multiple effects on intergenerational disadvantages will come across if discrimination and disadvantages are faced and experienced across situations and domains by any one group in any one generation.
By studying social psychological theories, I observed that while evaluating several theories psychologists use different methodologies such as observations, interviews, surveys, questionnaires, and case studies are used. Questionnaires and surveys are not as much reliable as observations, interviews, and case studies are. Detailed observations case studies and interviews will help the psychologist to yield accurate results about a particular theory after a view of a complex phenomenon.
This is indeed a complex phenomenon because the increasing complexities of life are creating a web of challenges for the psychologists to deal with the unprecedented situation. And this has become even more difficult with advent of the digital age. First and foremost, the psychologists need to be cognizant of the cultural disparities and the associated dispositions. The management of human mind is a global phenomenon and it applies in cultures and regions across the world. But the theoretical constructs are heavily skewed towards the developed societies as the crux of research and studies has been done there. This was one of the principal impediments for me as I still have not been able to find the culturally adaptable theories which can be readily applied in every situation and context. While some incidents come under the global spotlight like that of George Floyd which enraged the world and engulfed all the platforms from civil societies to sports with the narrative “Black Lives Matter”. But At the same time there are ocean of incidents of racial injustices around the world which go unnoticed. And this is especially true in the developing world where the fraternity of psychologists is also not strong or effective enough to take notice of such incidents and voice their concerns to the policy makers. This is because of lack of institutional capacity of this academic discipline in the developing world and I have experienced it first-hand. Although I am fortunate enough to get the appropriate exposure and learning opportunity here, yet I feel the psychologists and the social scientists as a whole have a long way to go when it comes to application of academic knowledge to make a worthy difference in the developing societies. Finally I am much obliged and grateful to my tutors and peers for giving me an incredible degree of learning curve which has enabled me to learn and also get a clarity on my professional roadmap ahead. I have always strongly believed in applying my knowledge in form of constructive contribution to the society. And this field of academic discipline is instrumental in shaping up a healthy societal mindset in the age of moral decadence where the economic opportunities dictate the virtues and vice.
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