In this assignment, I will be analyzing the historical development of the cruise industry, assessing its growth and implications of future challenges and trends; I will then examine worldwide cruise itineraries and investigate the range of excursions offered. Also, the primary focus will be on the improvement in courses and outings with time for the sake of customer satisfaction.
The Cruise sector has been running for more than a decade now, developing from being a simple mail ship to focus more on passengers in 1850. Nowadays, cruise ships are more luxurious and entertaining for customers and can adapt to different markets needs. According to the Maritime Academy, in 2018, around 27.2 million people traveled via cruise, making a profit of $126 billion and providing 1 million jobs within the industry. This evaluates that cruise markets are playing a significant role in developing the economy of a specific country.
Throwback to 1980, cruise ships were smaller, tiny, and were accessible only to celebrities, wealthy and famous people. Prominent characters such as Walt Disney and Queen Elizabeth were among those. But with the development through the years, cruise ships now have more in space both onboard and in the cabins, are much more affordable to everyone. Therefore there is more demand from a different clientele.
With the evolution throughout the time, from the first cruise ship, which was Norwegian Cruise Line in 1966, following Royal Caribbean International in 1969 and Carnival Cruises in 1972, new cruise ships lines have emerged and are now famous around the world. More is demanding from the market, and more it will be the case for new emerging products and services or a new emerging brand.
River cruises have been launched in the early 2000s "for the older generation that couldnt do anything else" (Travel Weekly, 2019). Still, nowadays, they are trying to engage young and solo travelers as well and providing more activities on board.
These famous cruises are developing timely by making improvements in them with high effectiveness. These improvements are to make up with customer satisfaction. The development of the journey also increasing the economy level with increased customer satisfaction. Popular famous cruise companies are:
Passenger Space Ratio
It is the gross tonnage (GT) of a ship divided by the number of passengers, which simply means the amount of space the passenger will have on board. This ratio is highly considered while making up the cruise to increase the security level.
Passenger Crew Ratio
It is the measurement of the amount of crew to passenger on a ship, which is derived by dividing the number of passengers to the amount of the team on board. The more crew per individuals passenger, the more appealing this is to guests since it will make their experience personalized.
The evolution of different cruise regions and destinations
Over the years, the industry has been evolving so much and became more global in both itineraries and passenger sourcing. Destinations such as the Caribbean and the Mediterranean Sea have been the most popular, with 35.4 percent of the worldwide capacity market share (image 1.1). Therefore, this has allowed the increase in ticket prices within the sector, given the desire in demand. The market share is rapidly increasing with the evolution of new cruises in the market.
Around 1900, the first ships carrying passengers were the transatlantic ships that had a fixed journey, starting from Southampton to New York, an example is the titanic that in 1912 due to a collision with an iceberg lunge with its passengers. Today, on the other hand, with the discovery of new destinations and new desired from the customer, cruise ships have gone further. Areas such as the Caribbean and the Mediterranean are the most sought after for their visual beauty and for the temperatures they maintain throughout the year.
The world of cruising has changed and modernized compared to before. Today cruise ships have listened to the wishes and needs of their customers, so there has been an evolution in the design of their vessels including cabins and onboard services, plus new destinations, new adventures, and even different themes have been researched and developed onboard the ship to different target groups.
The cruise ships, compared to many years ago, are seen more like "floating hotels" that have fantastic facilities onboard to satisfy every type of customer and the social/economic class to which one belongs. Indeed, today, the cruises are specialized for the kind of customer on which you want to aim, we have family cruises, premium cruises, luxury cruises, adventure cruises, of all kinds to provide the customer with the greatest pleasure of being on board with them and not feel the journey as just a way of transport but instead like a vacation. Another innovation was also adopted by the ports in which the ships stop, and this is because they benefit from the tourism of the boats for a financial contribution towards the region but also for tourism itself towards the city.
River cruises are another form of a journey that is becoming more and more popular nowadays. The river cruise is another way to visit more areas at the same time but generally with a shorter duration. The river cruise includes dining, cruising and touring. Usually, the ship sets sail at night or early in the day, and some famous companies are Viking, riviera travel, and Travel saga. In 2012, only in the UK, the number of passengers on a European river was registered as 90,000 customers.
How the careful planning of cruise itineraries improves the efficiency of the cruise lines as well as increasing sales
We have noticed, from the photo above, that the Caribbean and the Mediterranean are the leading destinations for cruises. The cruise companies to organize their itineraries very much follow the influence of what is trending and follow the seasonality of the goal.
An example, the Mediterranean is a destination that, for years, has been recurrent, and this is not only given by the fact that it presents cities with a breathtaking culture and historical baggage but also linked to the climate. The destinations mainly overlooking the Mediterranean, in summer, always have a reasonably stable temperature that allows you to enjoy the heat and the sea. The same applies to the Caribbean. In the period from October to April, in the Mediterranean, the temperature starts to fall, and the time is no longer enjoyable enough to have customers demand. Therefore the itineraries move towards the Caribbean where, even in winter, the temperatures are quite high and hot. This is also a definitive strategy for cruise companies to make profits if knowing that in winter, the consumer is looking for a warm environment and a break from everyday life.
Another strategy for continuing to make profits would be to take the ships journey to the Caribbean through several stops. The goal is to get the boat moving with the passengers and not to make it run empty, so the cruise in the Caribbean will be 4 5 days taking advantage of the journey with the passengers on board and selling it as a vacation, and also offers a variety of shore based attractions. 1.2
The positive and negative impact that cruising has on destinations both homeports and ports of call
Venice and Bimini Bay
Venice is a city located in Italy, famous for its beautiful masks, gondolas and because it is a city built on the water. It attracts yearly from 25 to 30 million foreign visitors, which can have a positive and negative impact on the town.
Unfortunately, tourism in Venice is essential because it is the only form in which the city has profits. Still, at the same time, tourism itself is bringing it to ruin, even the residents have created flyers with offensive words towards tourists to discourage them from visiting Venice.
Bimini Bay is located in the Bahamas, famous for its passion for fishing and a peaceful island to relax and enjoy themselves. But as much beautiful this island can be, it has as well positives and negatives impact. Positives impact:
Bimini Bay is a beautiful resort where a tourist can rest in peace. Still, unfortunately, investors are trying to destroy their beautiful landscape, and it is the duty of the major to restore order and not allow the habitat to be devastated by the hospitality sector.
Different excursions offered from similar destinations to the different target market
Royal Caribbean VS Celebrity Cruises in the Bahamas
These two cruises companies offer different excursions and different access to the market.
Disney cruises – Family with kids
Celebrity cruises – Family with kids
Disney Cruises – Only Adults
Celebrity Cruises – only adults
Disney Cruises – disable friendly
Celebrity Cruises – disable friendly
The historical development of cruising from the early 20th century to the present day
The history of cruise ships dates back to 1850 when there was an interest by boats on the passengers and no longer only in the transport of letters. Hence, the vessel began to improve the conditions on board by introducing lights, more deck space, and entertainment onboard. At the time, passengers were responsible for getting food from home because they were not served on board and had to find a suitable place to sleep.
In 1900, the Hamburg American Line created the first ship made especially for traveling purposes. After that, companies like P&O, Cunard, and White Star followed his path and started offering first class cabins and a selection of destinations.
In 1912 the Titanic sunk and due to the causes of low standards, from there had been in depth knowledge of health and safety on board. In 1914, the first world war began, which leads to a disruption of cruising. In 1922, the Laconia ship of Cunard was the first ship to travel across the world. In 1927, Ile de France, made by the French, was a passenger who decorated the boat in a modern style that ended the era of classic style on board. Around 1939 and 1945, beginning of the second world war, ships like the Queen Mary 2, Laconia, Queen Elizabeth had been used to transport soldiers and troops to the war, from there it was the turning point to build more substantial and more spacious ships for those who they sought this and offered better experiences. The 1950s is defined as the Golden Age for the cruise since they became a social event, with games, dances, drinking, and fascinating characters. In fact, in the same year, Cunard had as special guests onboard: Frank Sinatra, Judy Garland, and Walt Disney.
The 1950s is defined as the Golden Age for the cruise since they became a social event, with games, dances, drinking, and fascinating characters. In fact, in the same year, Cunard had as special guests onboard: Frank Sinatra, Judy Garland, and Walt Disney. With the arrival of the 2000s, several cruise companies were founded, for example, Celebrity cruises in 1989, Disney in 1999, and some companies merged as Carnival and P&O in 2004. In 2017 Royal Caribbean built the largest cruise ship (Symphony of the seas, which can accommodate a maximum of 6,680 passengers), and Carnival allows you to record your information before leaving. In 2019 Fred Olsen cruises launched to cruise ship app.
A milestone in transportation developments and their impacts on the cruise industry
The cruise sector has come to a long way, back in the day, going on a cruise meant sailing from one place, travel on the water for days, and then finally move around the area you wanted but today, with air travel becoming more accessible and cheaper for everyone is easy to get a plane, fly to wherever you want to travel and then jump on a cruise for a week or two and then take the flight quickly back to go home. It is called "fly cruises," which is a way to save time by enjoying more the destination you will go to visit. Fly cruises work with cruise companies as a package or can be purchased singularly as well.
There may be advantages in booking and not booking together.
For example, some advantages of booking together are:
Advantages of buying products singularly:
The decline of ocean liners, the competition from aircraft, the effect of the Gulf War, cruise line ownership and growth in demand for cruising
The distinction between ocean liners and cruise ships is that the latter is used for tourism purposes with entertainment on board. In contrast, the transatlantic liners are ships that, from the word itself, crossed the ocean and were of vital importance for business people. The first transatlantic ships date back to 1900, among which we have the SS Great Britain, RMS Queen Mary, and Queen Mary 2, which is the only transatlantic ship still existing that goes from Southampton to New York in 7 days. Unfortunately, by 2015 almost all the transatlantic vessels stopped working, and this happened with the development of passenger airlines, as traveling by air became the most effective, convenient, and fast way to cross the ocean and thus traveled long distances. Moreover, even with the evolution of the term cruise, passengers preferred to travel with ships where they could take advantage of onboard entertainment with more space than going on a first boat.
From 1957, the cruise sector was competing against the jet aircraft since more passengers preferred to travel by air than by sea; this was due to travel times and costs being more accessible by customers.
In 1991, there was a war going on between the United States and Iraq, called the Gulf War. To help the American soldiers in the fight, shipping companies have been used as a method of transportation, the reason of this was that there were available 3000 cargo ships, but only 100 have been used for military purposes; therefore shipping companies didnt report any significant disruption in their field.
River cruises have potential and are seeing a remarkable growth over the years. According to CLIA, more than 230,000 journeys were carried out in 2017. The Danube has become the most popular destination after the Rhine river, and outside Europe, the Nile reports a growth of 21%.
Eighteen years are ready to be built by 2020, which means that the passenger appreciates and enjoys traveling in river ships. Furthermore, the experience on land is fundamental for river ships and keeps the passenger busy with sporting activities such as cycling and hiking.
Some of the River Cruise are Tauck river cruising, Viking Cruises, Crystal River Cruises, and Scenic luxury river cruises.
Impact of cruising on worldwide travel
Cruise tourism is profoundly impacting on social, environmental, and economic stability. This tourism is continually gaining popularity from recent years and is one of the best tourism tops to increase the worth of the cruises. Cruise destinations are steadily growing with high development in different places. (Asero & Skonieczny, 2017). From the year 2009 till now, cruise tourism promoted excellent economic stability to different countries. If we look upon the global economic growth in recent years, it came out to be $119.9 billion. Within a few years, there was about a 13% increase in economic development, which comprises a more excellent ratio. Cruise tourism develops financial stability at a greater rate, but it requires high operational management. Other than this, cruises are making adaptations into their internal system and are innovating cruises to meet the demands of the customers. Cruise development is gaining popularity, and the way it is making innovations in the private network is for the sake of protecting the environment and providing the customers with a more significant level of safety. The itineraries are being introduced on the cruise to increase the effectiveness and demand of different cruise. A journey is gaining more establishment to promote tourism while preserving every environmental aspect efficiently. Different host communities are also highly considered to increase tourism practice in those areas as well. Elite class people prefer cruise much to spend their holidays while enjoying.
Economically cruise tourism is impacting profoundly on the countrys economy, but it is impacting negatively on the sustainability of the environment. If we do have a look at the previous and current data of the environmental aspects, there will be negativity all around because cruise development is excluding harmful substances that are impacting negatively on the sustainability of the environment. (Asero & Skonieczny, 2017). Not only this, but the poor regulation of these wastes is also imposing negative impacts on environmental sustainability. A cruise composing of 3000 passengers utilizes about 255 gallons per day, which contributes a significant percentage of environmental pollution. Although steps are taken to decrease this level of contamination. Cruise managers are finding alternative ways to promote health worldwide. These practices are contributing to impose an appositive image on the environmental aspects.
Cruise tourism is imposing positive social changes by increasing life perspectives efficiently. Different moral conducts are also polishing due to interaction with society. Different cruises have separate seats for different countries. A journey will have the places for the residents of Bahamas, Miami, Barcelona, and European destinations. This increases the social relationships between the people on the cruise.
Local business is highly increasing due to cruise development and the increase in the demand for cruise tourism. The elite class and celebrities mostly use cruise tourism facilities. But the major issue that is arising here is environmental instability, and there is a need to get over this issue; otherwise, there might be even more challenges for the coming future. Ports are increasing financial promotions, whether it is of the Bahamas or the Caribbean. These ports are increasing economic stability. There is a need to analyze every aspect of cruise tourism that will be supporting a sustainable environment in the future. Cruise tourism is expanding day by day, and the need is to get over the environmental challenges that might impact negatively on the environment. These environmental precautions will be highly assisting in providing cruise tourism a secure future. (Maruši? et al., 2008)
With the increase of tourism, there is an increased demand for reconstruction of multiple spaces as well. This also leads to the time space compression. To enhance the cruise experience, many of the countries are taking precautionary steps to increase the knowledge of customers. Oman, when at the early stages of cruise development, also reconstructs many of the cruise tourism places to enhance the experience of mega cruise tourism. (Maruši? et al., 2008). There are a total of nine excursions that make modifications in different areas to enhance the experience as per the customers satisfaction level. But there are negative aspects to these steps as well that many of the natural destinations come in the of making changes in the cruise areas and excursions. Many gallons are burned per day, and these are harming negatively on the water bodies of different islands. Also, there is a loss of territorial identity, as well. So there is a need for cruise managers to make modifications in such a way to increase customer satisfaction as well as to impact the environment positively. (Maruši? et al., 2008)
Itineraries, excursions, and customer satisfaction:
Cruise managing industries are taking measures to increase the level of customers satisfaction. The fact that lies here are the requirement of itineraries and excursions by the customers. To meet the demands of the elite class cruise industry is taking different innovative steps for increasing the level of customer satisfaction. For expanding the market and making innovation, different decisions are made to increase the demand for excursions. Cruise managers are also making up with the local environment to improve the dynamics of cruise tourism. These innovative steps are increasing the level of customer satisfaction at a more significant rate by utilizing different informed strategies. Excursion planning is highly required to improve the dynamics of cruise development. It was evident that with time many innovative features are introduced into the cruise establishment. The introduction of every new cruise came up with the development of more innovative features with enhanced dynamics. From Azamara Club Cruises to Seabourn and then to P&O, many of the advancements are made in the industry that prove out to be highly advantageous to the entire cruise development network. Also, a significant improvement has been made on the shore excursions to increase the worth of the place. Different destination managers are taking multiple steps to increase the level of customer satisfaction and also to promote the cruise industry into tourism even more by making up with the advancements of local destinations as well. Customers interest in cruise tourism day by day due to their increased satisfaction level that they are providing to them. Also, the advancements in shore excursions and itineraries are playing an essential role in increasing the interest of customers towards these.
Future challenges and trends predicted
Cruise ships have undergone a massive change since 1900 and are preparing to transform themselves again from being floating hotels to smart cities.
In particular, in the technology sector, cruises have facilitated the customers experience in embarking and disembarking from the ship, which means that the customer will no longer have to carry with him an identification card, but new tools such as key rings, bracelets or necklaces can be worn. MSC Cruises allows this service through its app, which also allows you to find various areas on the ship and provide the speedy reservation service as well. Royal Caribbean instead, adopts the bracelets method that also allows you to open the door of the room.
Another innovation is the interactive maps, now on the phone that now guide you where you want on the ship. It is also predicted that on some Aida and Costa ships, there will be "Pepper," a robot that provides travelers with how to get to a place.
Innovative bookings, in the MSC cruises app, you can book what time you want to show up at the restaurant, and in some cases, even book what you want to eat. This method can also be used to schedule activities that will appear on the personal agenda of your innovative bracelet.
Internet and streaming video will be faster than ever, thanks to the new packages available onboard.
Locating your children geographically, where you can know exactly where your children are, this service will be provided by Carnival and MSC Cruises.
Wearable credit cards, where there will no longer be the stress of carrying a bag with you and being afraid of losing it. Now it is possible to go anywhere on the ship and pay with the bracelet that contains the credit card, another novelty will also be able to order wherever you are on the ship and get a drink at your leisure, but above all, there will also be the option to book what you want to drink in different attractions that you will still have to attend.
The importance of partnerships for a cruise ship is not just a decorative and design fact but gives elegance to the vessel. An example is the restaurants on board with the best Chefs since the quality of the food on the cruise is fundamental. Similarly, cruise lines are trying to implement the same entertainment system, offering shows with musicals on board with famous groups like West End and Broadway.
Environmentally speaking, thanks to innovations, cruise lines are working hard to be as sustainable as possible. In fact, according to CLIA, there will be a global commitment in the sector to reduce carbon emissions by 40% by 2030. Another improvement will be to switch to liquefied natural gas to travel by 2025, ships that will participate in this will be P&O and new MSC cruise ships.
In 2019, the Hurtigruten ships will be the first to have complete hybrid capabilities, meaning that it will reduce emissions capacities by 20%. This ship will be followed by at least two more for now, and the engines will be set quietly based not to disturb the wildlife.
Some of the Shipboard innovations are:
WORLDWIDE CRUISE ITINERARIES AND EXCURSIONS Part 2
Different itineraries of the ocean and river cruises
Cruise itineraries are mostly dependent on ones destination, and the right choice of destination will also mean the perfect cruise itinerary. The most preferred are tropical itineraries with many opting for the Bahamas or the Western Caribbean cruises: these present warm and relaxed atmospheres with the opportunity of sunbathing and engaging in other fun water activities. The exotic itineraries include the southern Caribbean voyages, and Bermuda cruises are often less crowded, making it easy to relax and enjoy more (MacDonald, n.d.). An excellent itinerary will also depend on the amount of time allowed for cruise ships to dock at the port. The more time allowed for docking, the more there will be for sightseeing, thus making the cruise a little more enjoyable. Even so, cruises will have an eventual impact on destinations, and these may be positive or negative. When cruising, tourists will get to be part of various excursions.
Positive and Negative Impacts of Cruising
Cruising has numerous positive economic effects, especially for the residents of the destinations. In many instances, cruise lines will have agreements with local guides or tourist destinations so that when the cruise ship docks, these guides and the owners of these destinations can benefit from the tourists. It also helps in promoting interactions between locals and tourists. Cruising, however, has adverse effects on the environment as emissions from cruise ships will affect marine life adversely. Such results will eventually impact on destinations life cycle. When considering Butlers Tourist Area Life Cycle (TALC), the emissions will push the tourist area to the decline stage quicker than anticipated (Uysal, Perdue, and Sirgy, 2012). It is because these emissions affect the very nature that tourists are looking for, thus reducing the attractiveness, which represents one of the four As of the destination amalgam of the destination significantly.
The Range of Itineraries and Excursions – Critical Analysis
The numerous tourist destinations around the world make it hard to identify the best cruise itinerary and excursions. There are western Caribbean, Bahamas, Hawaiian, Alaskan or Mediterranean itineraries that tourists have the liberty of selecting. Other courses will focus on European destinations just to offer tourists what they desire. Some of these itineraries have similar excursions and relaxing getaways. However, environmental characteristics, climatic conditions, logistics, and other aspects will present differences for these itineraries and tours. Cruise lines need to ensure that they develop varied itineraries with excursions that match the destinations they visit. When a customer takes a cruise to Greece, he or she needs the European plan and will, therefore, expect excursions like visiting historical sites or even engaging in water sports. These desires need to be matched by what the cruise line will offer when the cruise ship docks. Even so, cruise lines need to ensure that the wishes of customers can be fulfilled on one cruise or the other, which also calls for diversity in the services offered.
Choice of Itineraries and Customer Satisfaction
When looking for a cruise, customers often have particular preferences in mind, and these will guide them towards the journey and destination they want. A cruise line with the knowledge of customer preferences will ensure to match customers to their desires, thus building their brand in the process. When a customer is looking for a warm, tropical getaway, a cruise line would recommend a Bahamas or a Caribbean itinerary to ensure the customer gets what he or she desires. A customer who loves history and historical sits would fit well in a European route. The customer would feel he or she is getting value for money if they get the exact experience they were hoping from the cruise. It will ensure that when the customer needs a different journey, he or she will opt for the same cruise line due to the pleasant experience they had before with the equal company. It would be critical for a cruise line to match the customers desire and expectation for adventure to makes sure that the customer returns and also recommends the cruise line to others. Apart from advancing customer satisfaction, the cruise line would be marketing its services pro bono.
Types of Excursions
Cruise ships will include site seeing tours in their itinerary, and these mainly take place in historic cities and sites. Others will be part of water sports excursions which including snorkeling, scuba diving, or jet skiing. The trips also include adventures such as rock climbing or zip lining, culture, and cuisine tours where tourists experience the cultures of the destinations. They are part of and can indulge in different cuisines as there encounter them during the cruise. When ships dock, tourists can also take wildlife and wilderness excursion to enjoy nature (Furlow, 2014). Even with such itineraries and tours in place, they need to match what customers desire and fulfill their needs for adventure or relaxation. Nonetheless, any cruise will have an impact on the destination, and it may be positive or negative.
The above analysis is evidence that improvement in the effectiveness of cruise development is increasing the market share, making an increase in the countrys economy. Although it is also affecting the environment negatively, it does also has a positive side as well. Cruise lines are making improvements in their internal system to increase the level of customer satisfaction. This satisfaction will ultimately lead to an increase in market share.
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