The climate change and effect of climate change is a complex phenomenon. Everything is connected with each other or with some external factors. The change in temperature due to climate change surely harms agricultural lands, land resources, and water resources. The extent of these effects varies from region to region, depending upon how vulnerable that region is. It also depends on the extent of temperature change, global warming, air, land, and water pollution. Everything is inter connected.  Each factor also induces the other one, and the whole circle becomes even stronger.


Climate change could increase vulnerabilities for agriculture, forest, and water resources, depending on a large part of the economy and livelihoods (Ullah, 2017). Climate change has multiple effects on every level of natural resources and ecological order. Climate is a broader term, and nothing on earth can escape it effects. Climate change could lead to change in temperature that can change or alter bio physical relationships of crops, fisheries, livestock, and forests. It can have devastating effects on human beings and all the other species living in these natural ecosystems and climates. Furthermore, the change in one particular ecosystem has the potential to introduce changes in others as well. For example, the depletion of water resources due to climate change will affect the life present in the water and disturb the rain cycle. The rain cycle affects the large areas including all the animals, plants, and humans beings. It also directly effects those animals living near that water resources because due to floods and depletion of water resources. Climate change is the sources of all other environmental changes. It is a catalyst that begins all the other reaction that threatens food security and human existence on the planet Earth.


The effects of climate change

There are different effects of climate change on different parts of the environment and ecological systems of nature. These changes can greatly affect life in each dimension and way possible because these are the factors that actually ensure the whole life on the earth. Humans need to under this basic fact. Otherwise, there will be serious consequences of their economic, political and cultural activities that we lead the whole biodiversity into absolute chaos and the danger of extinction. Climate change already has devastating effects on animals, and these effects are considered more destructive in the future (Hsiung and Sunstein, 2007). Animals are the main component of every biological system. That is why, it is necessary to mention the effects of climate change on these basic and most important vertebrates present throughout the earths surface.

Agricultural lands and agricultural products are the most basic need of human beings, and they are being depleted by climate change. If we analyze on rational grounds, not only do humans enjoy the benefits and blessings of agriculture but other animals and birds also live directly or indirectly on agricultural production. For example, cattle eat grass, and most of the grass is obtained from agricultural land. It is agriculture that fulfills the needs of human beings and all the domestic livestock and birds.

However, this balance is being disturbed due to climate change. Agricultural lands are not giving that kind of production they used to give. On the other hand, the human population is increasing continuously, and it is becoming difficult with every passing day to maintain the balance between the population and its agricultural needs. There is no doubt that scientific advancement enabled men to grow better crops. These genetically developed crops should yield more, and they should be more resistant to diseases and harsh environment, but the continuously changing environment is effecting it. The global warming and depletion of water resources. No matter the region, however, weather and climate characteristics such as temperature, precipitation, carbon dioxide (CO2), and water availability directly impact the health and well being of plants and livestock, as well as pasture and rangeland production (Backlund, Janetos and Schimel, 2008). Climate change invites temperature changes, precipitation, and carbon dioxide accumulation into the environment. It also imposes the issues of water availability. No matter the region, according to this report made by U.S. Climate Change Science Program and submitted to congress, climate change affects agriculture and crops. Climate change also affects pasture that directly affects the grazing animals. It will destroy the whole natural food cycle if continued for a longer period.


The climatic resources also determine the distribution of crops and livestock for a given region (Backlund, Janetos, and Schimel, 2008). The distribution of crops and livestock is another important issue that needs immediate attention. If these two things are not distributed equally, there will be a gap between the people, which is not good for any country. It divides the people. We can not leave this issue unchecked. It threatens our survival as a species. We need to find permanent solutions to address this issue. According to the EEAs most recent report on climate change, impacts, and vulnerability in Europe, soil moisture has significantly decreased in the Mediterranean (Soil, land, and climate change, 2019). The soil is losing its moisture due to climate change. It means that shortly it will not be able to hold moisture anymore. At that moment, it will become extremely difficult to yield crops. The main reason behind losing moisture is increasing temperature. The other reason is decreased rain. The main reason and its frequency have decreased to dangerous levels in many parts of the world. It is leading towards draughts and barrens lands. Deforestation is another major cause of losing moisture. Forests keep the land intact and feed it with moisture and necessary water. The increased deforestation for human use has caused this issue. In a certain region of Africa, this problem can be seen clearly in the rest of the world, where the whole fertilized lands have turned into barren deserts due to deforestation.

Changing natural conditions determine the lands suitability for agriculture (Zabel, Putzenlechner, and Mauser, 2014). It is a simple yet comprehensive statement. It includes the whole notion of at least human survival if we ignore the other species as we humans used to do. Climate change is mingling with the suitability of the soil for agricultural purposes. It means it is an imminent threat to human survival. If we do not take care of the whole scenario, it will engulf us slowly but surely.

It is estimated that the demand for agricultural products will be increased to 70–110% by 2050, as the world population will be expected to increase by 9 billion people. With the increase in demand, we are facing decreased productivity on the soil, which should yield more after these scientific advancements in agriculture and crop medication. The most affected areas are the tropical ones considered to be the most suitable regions for multiple cropping. The effects of climate on land are devastating, and humans must take serious actions to contain these effects if they want to survive on this planet.

Sea level rise due to global warming has been detected at many points and affects coastal water resources (KAZAMA and OKI, 2014). Rising sea levels are the main concern of most countries because most major economic hubs present on the seashores. The rising sea levels will also affect the economic activities as most of the trade is being done through the sea. Climate change and global warnings are causing icebergs to detach from the glaciers present in polar and Antarctica. It is the main reason and cause of rising water level in the sea.

Glaciers are another course of water storage. They maintain the water cycle on the earth. However, due to the increasing temperature due to global warming, these glaciers are melting at a greater rate that is causing floods. These floods further bring problems for the water resources. It contaminates the underground water resources. The depletion of underground water resources is another serious problem for humanity. The developing countries that depend on this source of fresh and drinking water are suffering a lot. Due to excessive use of underground water, the water levels have fallen drastically. Know it takes a lot more effort to get to the water. Actually, the whole water cycle is connected with each other. If one component of the cycle gets disturbed, it will have serious effects on the whole cycle.


Climate change is affecting almost everything on the earth. From agriculture to and land and to water resources, nothing is beyond the effects of climate change. By affecting these major areas of the ecosystem, climate change imposes an imminent threat to human existence on this planet. We need to take serious measures against climate change. Otherwise, it will bring even more problems for us. Furthermore, a rational and collective approach is required to cope with the issue of climate change, and only a single nation or state can not fight against it. We all have to play our roles in containing these effects.


Backlund, P., Janetos, A. and Schimel, D., 2008. The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States. U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3. Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, pp.21 22.

Hsiung, W. and Sunstein, C., 2007. Climate change and animals. p.11695.

KAZAMA, S. and OKI, T., 2014. The Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources. Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo,.

Ullah, S., 2017. Climate Change Impact on Agriculture of Pakistan A Leading Agent to Food Security. International journal of environmental sciences and natural resources, 6(3), p.76.

Zabel, F., Putzenlechner, B. and Mauser, W., 2014. Correction: Global Agricultural Land Resources – A High Resolution Suitability Evaluation and Its Perspectives until 2100 under Climate Change Conditions. PLoS ONE, 9(12), p.e114980.

  1. Soil, land and climate change. [online] European Environment Agency. Available at: < 2019 content list/articles/soil land and climate change> [Accessed 30 June 2021].


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